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      Evolving Role of Immunotherapy in Metastatic Castration Refractory Prostate Cancer

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          Abstract

          Immunotherapies have shown remarkable success in the treatment of multiple cancer types; however, despite encouraging preclinical activity, registration trials of immunotherapy in prostate cancer have largely been unsuccessful. Sipuleucel-T remains the only approved immunotherapy for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer based on modest improvement in overall survival. This immune evasion in the case of prostate cancer has been attributed to tumor-intrinsic factors, an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, and host factors, which ultimately make it an inert ‘cold’ tumor. Recently, multiple approaches have been investigated to turn prostate cancer into a ‘hot’ tumor. Antibodies directed against programmed cell death protein 1 have a tumor agnostic approval for a small minority of patients with microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic prostate cancer. Herein, we present an overview of the current immunotherapy landscape in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with a focus on immune checkpoint inhibitors. We describe the results of clinical trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; either as single agents or in combination with other checkpoint inhibitors, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, novel hormonal therapies, chemotherapies, and radioligands. Finally, we review upcoming immunotherapies, including novel monoclonal antibodies, chimeric-antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, Bi-Specific T cell Engagers (BiTEs), therapies targeting the adenosine pathway, and other miscellaneous agents.

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          Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab versus Sunitinib in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma

          Nivolumab plus ipilimumab produced objective responses in patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma in a pilot study. This phase 3 trial compared nivolumab plus ipilimumab with sunitinib for previously untreated clear-cell advanced renal-cell carcinoma.
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            The immune system recognizes and is poised to eliminate cancer but is held in check by inhibitory receptors and ligands. These immune checkpoint pathways, which normally maintain self-tolerance and limit collateral tissue damage during anti-microbial immune responses, can be co-opted by cancer to evade immune destruction. Drugs interrupting immune checkpoints, such as anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and others in early development, can unleash anti-tumor immunity and mediate durable cancer regressions. The complex biology of immune checkpoint pathways still contains many mysteries, and the full activity spectrum of checkpoint-blocking drugs, used alone or in combination, is currently the subject of intense study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Overall Survival with Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma

              Nivolumab combined with ipilimumab resulted in longer progression-free survival and a higher objective response rate than ipilimumab alone in a phase 3 trial involving patients with advanced melanoma. We now report 3-year overall survival outcomes in this trial.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                neeraj.agarwal@hci.utah.edu
                umang.swami@hci.utah.edu
                Journal
                Drugs
                Drugs
                Drugs
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                0012-6667
                1179-1950
                28 December 2020
                28 December 2020
                2021
                : 81
                : 2
                : 191-206
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.223827.e, ISNI 0000 0001 2193 0096, Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Huntsman Cancer Institute, , University of Utah, ; 2000 Circle of Hope Drive Suite 5726, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA
                Article
                1456
                10.1007/s40265-020-01456-z
                7932934
                33369720
                f4ce6323-913b-4bb8-804a-b288461c8cca
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits any non-commercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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