Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used in combination cocktails for treatment of childhood hematologic cancers and solid tumors. A major factor limiting DOX usage is DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Dexrazoxane (DXR) is an iron-binding compound and the only approved cardioprotectant for use with DOX. Amifostine (AMF) is a free radical scavenger and approved as a broad-spectrum cytoprotectant. We have shown that when female rats are treated with AMF, AMF + DOX, or AMF + DXR + DOX there is a significant decrease in the right femoral and lumbar vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) (P < 0.05) but not in the left femoral BMD. Furthermore, the relative bone volume (BV/TV) was significantly smaller in the lumbar vertebral bodies of rats treated with AMF (21.1%), AMF + DOX (34.4%), and AMF + DXR + DOX (38.4%), as was the trabecular number (Tb.N) with AMF (15.5%), AMF + DOX (29.9%), and AMF + DXR + DOX (32.3%). AMF + DOX- and AMF + DXR + DOX-treated vertebrae also exhibited deterioration in the microarchitecture of the trabecular bone and spinous processes as ascertained by microcomputerized tomography (micro CT). This information will be useful in designing better cancer combination therapies that do not lead to bone deterioration.