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      A comprehensive expression analysis of the MIA gene family in malignancies: MIA gene family members are novel, useful markers of esophageal, lung, and cervical squamous cell carcinoma

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          Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) gene family members include MIA, MIA2, and Transport and Golgi organization protein 1 (TANGO). Although MIA gene family members have several tumor-related functions, their detailed roles in malignancies remain poorly elucidated. In this study, 477 tumor specimens were subjected to immunohistochemical screening to evaluate MIA gene family expression. For a validation analysis, we also examined the association between MIA gene family expression and clinicopathological factors in 66 cases of esophageal cancer, 145 cases of lung cancer, and 126 cases of cervical cancer. The frequency of MIA gene family expression was higher among squamous cell carcinomas than among other tumor types subjected to screening. In the validation analysis, MIA gene family staining was observed frequently in esophageal and lung cancers associated with nodal and/or distant metastasis. In cervical cancers, MIA and TANGO immunostaining also correlated with tumor progression and metastasis. Furthermore, MIA2 expression levels in invasive cervical cancer were upregulated relative to those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3. A disease-free survival analysis revealed that MIA-, MIA2, or TANGO-positive patients had a significantly shorter disease-free survival than did those patients who were negative. Our results suggest that MIA, MIA2, and TANGO may be useful diagnostic and therapeutic molecular targets in human malignancies.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
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              Prognostic and predictive factors in breast cancer by immunohistochemical analysis.

              Most recent decisions for breast cancer patients are made on the basis of prognostic and predictive factors. In addition to the traditional tumor/nodal/metastasis staging variables, estrogen and progesterone receptor status as assessed by biochemical ligand-binding assays are the only other factors that have been adequately validated and recommended for routine clinical use. Pathologists today, however, are evaluating estrogen and progesterone receptors almost exclusively by immunohistochemical means. Although many studies suggest that these tests might have equivalent or even superior abilities to predict patient outcome, there are important methodologic shortcomings to resolve before this technology achieves the clinical and technical validation necessary to justify its routine use. Many laboratories are also evaluating other factors for clinical use by immunohistochemical techniques, including, in particular, c-erbB-2, p53, and Ki-67 proliferation indices. Although available studies suggest that these factors might indeed be helpful in making treatment decisions, their clinical usefulness is still controversial, and, like the assessment of hormone receptors, there are important unresolved technical issues, such as how to prepare the tissue, which reagents to use and, most importantly, how to interpret the results. A few laboratories have gone to considerable effort to develop reproducible methods for evaluating these factors, and they have performed comprehensive studies demonstrating the prognostic and predictive significance of their results. Nonetheless, most laboratories offering these tests have not adequately validated them and might not even be aware of the issues needing attention. Unless laboratories validate their tests or follow the procedures of others who have, they run the risk of reporting meaningless and potentially harmful results. In the future, these and other factors will be incorporated into a prognostic index that will better reflect the biologic diversity of breast cancer and that will more accurately predict clinical outcome.

                Author and article information

                Impact Journals LLC
                24 May 2016
                28 April 2016
                : 7
                : 21
                : 31137-31152
                1 Department of Molecular Pathology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan
                2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan
                3 Institute for Biochemistry, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Tomonori Sasahira, sasa@
                Copyright: © 2016 Sasahira et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Research Paper

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                mia, mia2, tango, scc


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