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      Implication of Anopheles funestus in malaria transmission in the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon Translated title: Implication d’ Anopheles funestus dans la transmission du paludisme dans la ville de Yaoundé au Cameroun

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          The contribution of Anopheles funestus to malaria transmission in the urban environment is still not well documented. The present study assesses the implication of An. funestus in malaria transmission in two districts, Nsam and Mendong, in the city of Yaoundé. Adult mosquitoes were collected using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps (CDC-LT) and human landing catches from April 2017 to March 2018 and were identified morphologically to the species level. Those belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex and to the Anopheles funestus group were further processed by PCR to identify members of each complex/group. Anopheline mosquitoes were analysed to determine their infection status using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bioassays were conducted with 2–5-day-old female Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae s.l. to determine their susceptibility to permethrin, deltamethrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Six anopheline species were collected in the peri-urban district of Mendong: Anopheles gambiae, An. coluzzii, An. funestus, An. leesoni, An. ziemanni and An. marshallii; only four out of the six were recorded in Nsam. Of the two members of the Anopheles gambiae complex collected, An. coluzzii was the most prevalent. Anopheles coluzzii was the most abundant species in Nsam, while An. funestus was the most abundant in Mendong. Both Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae s.l. were found to be infected with human Plasmodium at both sites, and both were found to be resistant to DDT, permethrin, and deltamethrin. This study confirms the participation of An. funestus in malaria transmission in Yaoundé and highlights the need to also target this species for sustainable control of malaria transmission.

          Translated abstract

          La contribution d’ Anopheles funestus à la transmission du paludisme en milieu urbain n’est pas encore bien documentée. La présente étude évalue l’implication d’ An. funestus dans la transmission du paludisme dans la ville de Yaoundé. L’étude a été menée dans deux quartiers de la ville de Yaoundé, Nsam et Mendong. Des moustiques adultes ont été collectés à l’aide des pièges lumineux de type CDC et sur volontaires humains d’avril 2017 à mars 2018. Les moustiques appartenant au genre Anopheles ont été analysés afin de déterminer leur statut infectant grâce à la technique ELISA. Des bio-essais ont été effectués sur des femelles d’ An. funestus et An. gambiae s.l. âgées de 2 à 5 jours afin de déterminer leur sensibilité à la perméthrine, la deltaméthrine et le dichlorodiphényltrichloroéthane (DDT). Six espèces d’anophèles ont été collectées dans le quartier périurbain de Mendong : An. gambiae, An. coluzzii, An. funestus, An. leesoni, An. ziemanni et An. marshallii ; seule les quatre premières ont été trouvées à Nsam. Des deux espèces du complexe An. gambiae retrouvées, An. coluzzii était la plus abondante. Anopheles gambiae s.l. était l’espèce prédominante à Nsam, tandis que An. funestus était la plus abondante à Mendong. Les deux espèces An. funestus et An. gambiae s.l. étaient infectées par des Plasmodium humains dans les deux sites, et se sont avérés résistantes au DDT, à la perméthrine et à la deltaméthrine. Cette étude confirme la participation d’ An. funestus à la transmission du paludisme à Yaoundé et souligne la nécessité de cibler également cette espèce pour une lutte durable contre le paludisme.

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          Most cited references 67

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          Many attempts have been made to quantify Africa's malaria burden but none has addressed how urbanization will affect disease transmission and outcome, and therefore mortality and morbidity estimates. In 2003, 39% of Africa's 850 million people lived in urban settings; by 2030, 54% of Africans are expected to do so. We present the results of a series of entomological, parasitological and behavioural meta-analyses of studies that have investigated the effect of urbanization on malaria in Africa. We describe the effect of urbanization on both the impact of malaria transmission and the concomitant improvements in access to preventative and curative measures. Using these data, we have recalculated estimates of populations at risk of malaria and the resulting mortality. We find there were 1,068,505 malaria deaths in Africa in 2000 - a modest 6.7% reduction over previous iterations. The public-health implications of these findings and revised estimates are discussed.
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            A cocktail polymerase chain reaction assay to identify members of the Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) group.

            Anopheles funestus Giles is a major malaria vector in Africa belonging to a group of species with morphologically similar characteristics. Morphological identification of members of the A. funestus group is difficult because of overlap of distinguishing characteristics in adult or immature stages as well as the necessity to rear isofemale lines to examine larval and egg characters. A rapid rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been developed to accurately identify five members of the A. funestus group. This PCR is based on species-specific primers in the ITS2 region on the rDNA to identify A. funestus (approximately 505bp), Anopheles vaneedeni Gillies and Coetzee (approximately 587bp), Anopheles rivulorum Leeson (approximately 411bp), Anopheles leesoni Evans (approximately 146bp), and Anopheles parensis Gillies (approximately 252bp).
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              Malaria transmission in urban sub-Saharan Africa.

              The rapid increase in the world's urban population has major implications for the epidemiology of malaria. A review of malaria transmission in sub-Saharan African cities shows the strong likelihood of transmission occurring within these sprawling cities, whatever the size or characteristics of their bioecologic environment. A meta-analysis of results from studies of malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa shows a loose linear negative relationship between mean annual entomologic inoculation rates (EIR) and the level of urbanicity. Few studies have failed to find entomologic evidence of some transmission. Our results show mean annual EIRs of 7.1 in the city centers, 45.8 in periurban areas, and 167.7 in rural areas. The impact of urbanization in reducing transmission is more marked in areas where the mean rainfall is low and seasonal. Considerable variation in the level of transmission exists among cities and within different districts in the same city. This article presents evidence from past literature to build a conceptual framework to begin to explain this heterogeneity. The potential for malaria epidemics owing to decreasing levels of natural immunity may be offset by negative impacts of urbanization on the larval ecology of anopheline mosquitoes. Malaria control in urban environments may be simpler as a result of urbanization; however, much of what we know about malaria transmission in rural environments might not hold in the urban context.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                12 February 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                [1 ] Laboratoire de Recherche sur le Paludisme, Organisation de Coordination Pour la Lutte Contre les Endémies en Afrique Centrale (OCEAC) P.O. Box 288 Yaoundé Cameroon
                [2 ] Vector Borne Diseases Laboratory of the Applied Biology and Ecology Research Unit (VBID-URBEA), Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Dschang P.O. Box 067 Dschang Cameroon
                [3 ] Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I P.O. Box 337 Yaoundé Cameroon
                [4 ] Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Pembroke Place L3 5QA Liverpool UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: antonio_nk@ 123456yahoo.fr
                parasite200012 10.1051/parasite/2020005
                © L. Djamouko-Djonkam et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 7, Equations: 0, References: 69, Pages: 13
                Research Article


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