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      Combining Necrosis and Platelet Markers for Perfecting Myocardial Infarction Rule Out: How Close Are We?

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          Abstract

          Each year, at least 5 million patients in the United States present to hospital emergency departments with the complaint of chest pain, and more than 10% of them will be diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. One of the foremost tasks of the emergency department physician is to avoid unnecessary admissions and concomitantly to minimize the number of patients discharged home inappropriately. Currently available diagnostic tools, including the electrocardiogram and myocardial markers, have several shortcomings, including low specificity, and delayed sensitivity for the timely detection of myocardial necrosis. Therefore, the search for better methods of rapidly identifying patients with unstable coronary syndromes is one of the utmost priorities of modern emergency medicine. Available biochemical diagnostic tools are discussed in this review, focusing on the potential benefits of combining myocardial necrosis markers with indicators of platelet activation. It is hypothesized that such a combined approach may be more powerful in myocardial infarction risk stratification than separate marker determination.

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          Most cited references 8

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          ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction

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            Use of a rapid assay of subforms of creatine kinase-MB to diagnose or rule out acute myocardial infarction.

            Ruling out myocardial infarction in patients coming to the emergency room with chest pain is hindered by the lack of a specific early diagnostic marker. Less than 30 percent of patients admitted to coronary care units have infarction, resulting in substantial unnecessary expenditures. We developed a rapid assay of the subforms of creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) and prospectively analyzed its sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing myocardial infarction in the first six hours after the onset of chest pain. In 1110 consecutive patients who came to the emergency room with chest pain, blood samples were collected every 30 to 60 minutes until at least 6 hours after the onset of symptoms; in patients who were then admitted to the hospital, samples were collected every 4 hours for up to 48 hours. The samples were analyzed for CK-MB subforms, and the diagnosis of myocardial infarction was confirmed by conventional CK-MB analysis. Of the 1110 patients evaluated, 121 had myocardial infarction. The sensitivity of the assay of CK-MB subforms to detect myocardial infarction in the first six hours after the onset of symptoms was 95.7 per cent, as compared with only 48 percent for the conventional CK-MB assay; the specificity was 93.9 percent among patients hospitalized without myocardial infarction and 96.2 percent among those sent home. Among the patients with myocardial infarction, definitive results of the subform assay were available a mean (+/- SD) of 1.22 +/- 1.17 hours after their arrival in the emergency room. The assay of CK-MB subforms reliably detected myocardial infarction within the first six hours after the onset of symptoms, and its use could reduce admission to the coronary care unit by 50 to 70 percent, thereby reducing costs.
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              The earliest diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

              Acute myocardial infarction results from the cessation of myocardial blood flow caused by thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery. Rapid restoration of blood flow to the ischemic myocardium minimizes cardiac damage and improves early and long-term morbidity and mortality. Chest pain is the first symptom of myocardial infarction, but in some patients with silent ischemia, the disease can be diagnosed only in retrospect. In symptomatic patients, myocardial infarction should be accurately and promptly diagnosed so that reperfusion therapy can begin immediately. Electrocardiography is the simplest diagnostic modality. Although regional ST-segment elevation is specific, it is not sensitive. In contrast, new computerized algorithms for electrocardiographic analysis and serial monitoring increase sensitivity without decreasing specificity. In the emergency room, echocardiography is used to diagnose patients with no prior history of coronary artery disease whose electrocardiograms proved nondiagnostic. Time-consuming perfusion nuclear studies are inferior to echocardiography but may nevertheless enable physicians to diagnose myocardial infarction in the emergency room. Although the presence of excess creatine kinase is a sign of myocardial necrosis, its increase is delayed for a few hours after coronary occlusion. Doctors can diagnose myocardial infarction as early as two hours after coronary occlusion with the help of simpler automatic assays of MB-creatine kinase mass that use monoclonal antibodies. Other investigational markers of myocardial necrosis include myoglobin and troponin. Elevation of a circulating protein marker also signifies established necrosis, but physicians hope to achieve reperfusion through therapy before irreversible damage occurs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2000
                June 2000
                04 July 2000
                : 93
                : 1-2
                : 50-55
                Affiliations
                aSinai Center for Thrombosis Research, Baltimore, Md., bDuke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C., and cSt. Agnes Hospital, and dUniversity of Maryland, Baltimore, Md., USA
                Article
                7002 Cardiology 2000;93:50–55
                10.1159/000007002
                10894907
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 64, Pages: 6
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