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      New insights into the Hippo/YAP pathway in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

      , , , , , ,
      Pharmacological Research
      Elsevier BV

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          EMT: 2016.

          The significant parallels between cell plasticity during embryonic development and carcinoma progression have helped us understand the importance of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human disease. Our expanding knowledge of EMT has led to a clarification of the EMT program as a set of multiple and dynamic transitional states between the epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes, as opposed to a process involving a single binary decision. EMT and its intermediate states have recently been identified as crucial drivers of organ fibrosis and tumor progression, although there is some need for caution when interpreting its contribution to metastatic colonization. Here, we discuss the current state-of-the-art and latest findings regarding the concept of cellular plasticity and heterogeneity in EMT. We raise some of the questions pending and identify the challenges faced in this fast-moving field.
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            Role of YAP/TAZ in mechanotransduction.

            Cells perceive their microenvironment not only through soluble signals but also through physical and mechanical cues, such as extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness or confined adhesiveness. By mechanotransduction systems, cells translate these stimuli into biochemical signals controlling multiple aspects of cell behaviour, including growth, differentiation and cancer malignant progression, but how rigidity mechanosensing is ultimately linked to activity of nuclear transcription factors remains poorly understood. Here we report the identification of the Yorkie-homologues YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, also known as WWTR1) as nuclear relays of mechanical signals exerted by ECM rigidity and cell shape. This regulation requires Rho GTPase activity and tension of the actomyosin cytoskeleton, but is independent of the Hippo/LATS cascade. Crucially, YAP/TAZ are functionally required for differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells induced by ECM stiffness and for survival of endothelial cells regulated by cell geometry; conversely, expression of activated YAP overrules physical constraints in dictating cell behaviour. These findings identify YAP/TAZ as sensors and mediators of mechanical cues instructed by the cellular microenvironment.
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              Wound repair and regeneration.

              The repair of wounds is one of the most complex biological processes that occur during human life. After an injury, multiple biological pathways immediately become activated and are synchronized to respond. In human adults, the wound repair process commonly leads to a non-functioning mass of fibrotic tissue known as a scar. By contrast, early in gestation, injured fetal tissues can be completely recreated, without fibrosis, in a process resembling regeneration. Some organisms, however, retain the ability to regenerate tissue throughout adult life. Knowledge gained from studying such organisms might help to unlock latent regenerative pathways in humans, which would change medical practice as much as the introduction of antibiotics did in the twentieth century.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pharmacological Research
                Pharmacological Research
                Elsevier BV
                10436618
                July 2021
                July 2021
                : 169
                : 105635
                Article
                10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105635
                33930530
                f4ef8625-e416-4a8d-a7ab-f514c41d34a7
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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