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      GDF15 promotes the proliferation of cervical cancer cells by phosphorylating AKT1 and Erk1/2 through the receptor ErbB2

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          Abstract

          Background

          Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a member of the TGF-β superfamily, and evidence suggests that a substantial amount of GDF15 is secreted in various human cancers, such as ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and breast cancer, among others. However, the function of GDF15 in cervical cancer has not yet been reported.

          Methods

          Immunohistochemistry was used to detect GDF15 expression in normal cervix and in different cervical cancer lesions. Cell growth curves, MTT, tumor formation assays and flow cytometry were utilized to observe the effects of ectopic GDF15 expression on the proliferation and cell cycle of cervical cancer cells. Real-time PCR, western blotting and immunoprecipitation assays were conducted to measure the expression of genes related to the cell cycle and the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was performed to confirm whether C-myc bound to a specific region of the GDF15 promoter. Inhibitor treatment and immunoprecipitation assays were employed to identify the association between GDF15 and ErbB2.

          Results

          GDF15 expression gradually increased during the progression of cervical carcinogenesis. GDF15 promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation via exogenous rhGDF15 treatment or the use of gene editing technology in vitro and in vivo and significantly accelerated the cell cycle transition from G0/G1 to S phase. The expression of p-ErbB2, p-AKT1, p-Erk1/2, CyclinD1 and CyclinE1 was up-regulated and the expression of p21 was down-regulated in GDF15-overexpressing and rhGDF15-treated cervical cancer cells. C-myc trans-activated GDF15 expression by binding to the E-box motifs in the promoter of GDF15 and contributed to the positive feedback of GDF15/C-myc/GDF15. Furthermore, GDF15 bound to ErbB2 in a protein complex in cervical cancer cells.

          Conclusions

          Our data demonstrated that GDF15 promoted the proliferation of cervical cancer cells via the up-regulation of CyclinD1 and CyclinE1 and the down-regulation of p21 through both the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways in a complex with ErbB2.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s13046-018-0744-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008.

          Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 cancers in 2008 have been prepared for 182 countries as part of the GLOBOCAN series published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article, we present the results for 20 world regions, summarizing the global patterns for the eight most common cancers. Overall, an estimated 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur in 2008, with 56% of new cancer cases and 63% of the cancer deaths occurring in the less developed regions of the world. The most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide are lung (1.61 million, 12.7% of the total), breast (1.38 million, 10.9%) and colorectal cancers (1.23 million, 9.7%). The most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.38 million, 18.2% of the total), stomach cancer (738,000 deaths, 9.7%) and liver cancer (696,000 deaths, 9.2%). Cancer is neither rare anywhere in the world, nor mainly confined to high-resource countries. Striking differences in the patterns of cancer from region to region are observed. Copyright © 2010 UICC.
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            Multiplex genome engineering using CRISPR/Cas systems.

            Functional elucidation of causal genetic variants and elements requires precise genome editing technologies. The type II prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas adaptive immune system has been shown to facilitate RNA-guided site-specific DNA cleavage. We engineered two different type II CRISPR/Cas systems and demonstrate that Cas9 nucleases can be directed by short RNAs to induce precise cleavage at endogenous genomic loci in human and mouse cells. Cas9 can also be converted into a nicking enzyme to facilitate homology-directed repair with minimal mutagenic activity. Lastly, multiple guide sequences can be encoded into a single CRISPR array to enable simultaneous editing of several sites within the mammalian genome, demonstrating easy programmability and wide applicability of the RNA-guided nuclease technology.
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              Human papillomavirus oncoproteins: pathways to transformation.

              An association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical cancer was initially reported over 30 years ago, and today there is overwhelming evidence that certain subtypes of HPV are the causative agents of these malignancies. The p53 and retinoblastoma proteins are well-characterized targets of the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but recent studies have shown that the alteration of additional pathways are equally important for transformation. These additional factors are crucial regulators of cell cycle progression, telomere maintenance, apoptosis and chromosomal stability. Understanding how HPV oncoproteins modify these activities provides novel insights into the basic mechanisms of oncogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                lishan2.0521@stu.xjtu.edu.cn
                mym1209@stu.xjtu.edu.cn
                +86-029-82657874 , zpsheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn
                zhangpingdd789@163.com
                Journal
                J Exp Clin Cancer Res
                J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res
                Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research : CR
                BioMed Central (London )
                0392-9078
                1756-9966
                10 April 2018
                10 April 2018
                2018
                : 37
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0599 1243, GRID grid.43169.39, Department of Reproductive Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, , Xi’an Jiaotong University, ; Shaanxi, Xi’an, 710061 People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0369 313X, GRID grid.419897.a, Section of Cancer Stem Cell Research, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China, ; Xi’an, People’s Republic of China
                Article
                744
                10.1186/s13046-018-0744-0
                5894198
                29636108
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81472728
                Award ID: 81672910
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                cervical cancer, erbb2, proliferation, gdf15

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