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      Dietary flavonoids and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases: review of recent findings.

      Current Opinion in Lipidology

      Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Meta-Analysis as Topic, Humans, metabolism, Flavonols, administration & dosage, Flavonoids, Feeding Behavior, Endothelium, Vascular, Eating, pathology, drug therapy, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, blood, Cholesterol, LDL, epidemiology, Cardiovascular Diseases, chemistry, Camellia sinensis, Cacao, Antioxidants, Anthocyanins

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          This review summarizes the results on flavonoid intakes and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recent advances in food composition databases have allowed the evaluation of a more comprehensive range of flavonoids in epidemiological studies. In addition, the number of randomized trials of flavonoid-rich foods has increased rapidly. Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggest that anthocyanidins from berries and flavan-3-ols from green tea and cocoa may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Meta-analyses of randomized trials indicate that the strongest evidence exists for a beneficial effect of green tea on LDL-cholesterol and a beneficial effect of flavan-3-ol-rich cocoa on endothelial function and insulin sensitivity. Few randomized trials had a long duration or evaluated pure flavonoid compounds. Evidence from cohort studies and randomized trials suggest beneficial effects of food sources of anthocyanidins (berries) and flavan-3-ols (green tea and cocoa) on cardiovascular health. These findings need to be confirmed in long-term randomized trials, and evaluation of pure compounds will be important to establish what specific flavonoids and doses are effective.

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