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      Effects of Oxcarbazepine and Levetiracetam on Calcium, Ionized Calcium, and 25-OH Vitamin-D3 Levels in Patients with Epilepsy


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          The primary objective of the present study was to further elucidate the effects of oxcarbazepine (OXC) and levetiracetam (LEV) monotherapies on the bone health status of patients with epilepsy.


          This study included 48 patients who attended our epilepsy outpatient clinic, had a diagnosis of epilepsy, and were undergoing either OXC or LEV monotherapy and 42 healthy control subjects. The demographic and clinical features of the patients, including gender, age, onset of disease, daily drug dosage, and duration of disease, were noted. Additionally, the calcium, ionized calcium, and 25-OH vitamin-D3 levels of the participants were prospectively evaluated.


          The 25-OH vitamin-D3, calcium, and ionized calcium levels of the patients taking OXC were significantly lower than those of the control group. These levels did not significantly differ between the patients taking LEV and the control group, but there was a significant negative relationship between daily drug dose and ionized calcium levels in the LEV patients.


          In the present study, anti-epileptic drugs altered the calcium, ionized calcium, and 25-OH vitamin-D3 levels of epilepsy patients and resulted in bone loss, abnormal mineralization, and fractures. These findings suggest that the calcium, ionized calcium, and 25-OH vitamin-D3 levels of patients with epilepsy should be regularly assessed.

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          Most cited references24

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          Descriptive Epidemiology of Epilepsy: Contributions of Population-Based Studies From Rochester, Minnesota

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            Incidence of fractures among epilepsy patients: a population-based retrospective cohort study in the General Practice Research Database.

            To compare the incidence of various fractures in a cohort of patients with epilepsy with a reference cohort of patients not having epilepsy. Patients were included in the epilepsy cohort if they had at least one diagnosis of epilepsy in their medical history and had sufficient evidence of "active" epilepsy (use of antiepileptic drugs, diagnoses) after the practice was included in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Two reference patients were sampled for each patient with epilepsy from the same practice. Primary outcome was the occurrence of any fracture during follow-up. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate incidence density ratios (IDRs). The study population comprised 40,485 and 80,970 patients in the epilepsy and reference cohorts, respectively. The median duration of follow-up was approximately 3 years. The overall incidence rate in the epilepsy cohort was 241.9 per 10,000 person-years. This rate was about twice as high as that in reference cohort: age- and sex-adjusted IDR, 1.89 (95% CI, 1.81-1.98). When comparing IDRs among the different groups of fractures, the highest relative-risk estimate was found for hip and femur fractures (adjusted IDR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.41-3.24). IDRs were consistently elevated across age and sex groups and across fracture subtypes. The overall risk of fractures was nearly twice as high among patients with epilepsy compared with the general population. The relative fracture risk was highest for hip and femur. Further study is necessary to elucidate whether this elevated risk is due to the disease, the use of antiepileptic drugs, or both.
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              Epilepsy and bone health in adults.

              Adults taking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have an augmented risk for osteopenia and osteoporosis because of abnormalities of bone metabolism associated with AEDs. The increased fracture rates that have been described among patients with epilepsy may be related both to seizures and to AEDs. The hepatic enzyme-inducing AEDs phenytoin, phenobarbital, and primidone have the clearest association with decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Carbamazepine, also an enzyme-inducing drug, and valproate, an enzyme inhibitor, may also adversely affect bone, but further study is needed. Little information is available about specific effects of newer AEDs on bone. Physicians are insufficiently aware of the association between AEDs and bone disease; a survey found that fewer than one-third of neurologists routinely evaluated AED-treated patients for bone disease, and fewer than 10% prescribed prophylactic calcium and vitamin D. Physicians should counsel patients taking AEDs about good bone health practices, and evaluation of bone health by measuring BMD is warranted after 5 years of AED treatment or before treatment in postmenopausal women.

                Author and article information

                Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci
                Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci
                Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience
                Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
                February 2016
                29 February 2016
                : 14
                : 1
                : 74-78
                Department of Neurology, Bakirkoy Education and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Betül Tekin Güveli, MD, Department of Neurology, Bakirkoy Education and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, Bakırköy, 34147, Istanbul, Turkey, Tel: +90-532-7848273, Fax: +90-212-5729595, E-mail: betultekin2013@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright © 2016, Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology

                This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article

                antiepileptic drugs,levetiracetam,oxcarbazepine,25-oh vitamin d3,bone disease


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