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      Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Type 2 Diabetes

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          Abstract

          Background Canagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that reduces glycemia as well as blood pressure, body weight, and albuminuria in people with diabetes. We report the effects of treatment with canagliflozin on cardiovascular, renal, and safety outcomes. Methods The CANVAS Program integrated data from two trials involving a total of 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Participants in each trial were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin or placebo and were followed for a mean of 188.2 weeks. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Results The mean age of the participants was 63.3 years, 35.8% were women, the mean duration of diabetes was 13.5 years, and 65.6% had a history of cardiovascular disease. The rate of the primary outcome was lower with canagliflozin than with placebo (occurring in 26.9 vs. 31.5 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.97; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.02 for superiority). Although on the basis of the prespecified hypothesis testing sequence the renal outcomes are not viewed as statistically significant, the results showed a possible benefit of canagliflozin with respect to the progression of albuminuria (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.79) and the composite outcome of a sustained 40% reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the need for renal-replacement therapy, or death from renal causes (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.77). Adverse reactions were consistent with the previously reported risks associated with canagliflozin except for an increased risk of amputation (6.3 vs. 3.4 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.75); amputations were primarily at the level of the toe or metatarsal. Conclusions In two trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes and an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, patients treated with canagliflozin had a lower risk of cardiovascular events than those who received placebo but a greater risk of amputation, primarily at the level of the toe or metatarsal. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; CANVAS and CANVAS-R ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01032629 and NCT01989754 , respectively.).

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          Effects of intensive glucose control on microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials.

          Intensive glucose control is understood to prevent complications in adults with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to more precisely estimate the effects of more intensive glucose control, compared with less intensive glucose control, on the risk of microvascular events.
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            Effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors on cardiovascular events, death, and major safety outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

            In patients with type 2 diabetes, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are known to reduce glucose concentrations, blood pressure, and weight, but to increase LDL cholesterol and the incidence of urogenital infections. Protection against cardiovascular events has also been reported, as have possible increased risks of adverse outcomes such as ketoacidosis and bone fracture. We aimed to establish the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular events, death, and safety outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes, both overall and separately for individual drugs.
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              Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study (CANVAS)--a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

              Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibition is a novel mode of treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin lowered blood glucose, blood pressure, and body weight, with increased risk of urogenital infections in Phase 2 studies. Effects on macrovascular complications of diabetes remain to be determined. CANVAS is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effects of canagliflozin on the risk of cardiovascular disease and to assess safety and tolerability in patients with inadequately controlled T2DM and increased cardiovascular risk. The first of 2 planned phases randomized 4,330 individuals to placebo, canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg (1:1:1) with planned follow-up of about 2 years to substantiate potential cardiovascular protection by assessing key biomarkers and to achieve initial safety objectives. By the end of mid-September 2012, a total of 7174 patient-years of follow-up were accrued. Mean baseline age was 62 years, duration of diabetes 13 years; hemoglobin A1c 8.2%, fasting plasma glucose 9.3 mmol/L, and body mass index 32 kg/m(2). Of the participants, 34% are female and 57% had a history of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Participants will be followed up to achieve primary safety and tolerability objectives and to investigate secondary outcomes. The planned second phase will not be undertaken. CANVAS will define the effects of canagliflozin on biomarkers and provide data on cardiovascular safety against established regulatory parameters. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                August 17 2017
                August 17 2017
                : 377
                : 7
                : 644-657
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1611925
                28605608
                f50077de-0b70-412e-a40c-1692fe28ebe5
                © 2017
                History

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