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      Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Type 2 Diabetes

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          Abstract

          Background Canagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that reduces glycemia as well as blood pressure, body weight, and albuminuria in people with diabetes. We report the effects of treatment with canagliflozin on cardiovascular, renal, and safety outcomes. Methods The CANVAS Program integrated data from two trials involving a total of 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Participants in each trial were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin or placebo and were followed for a mean of 188.2 weeks. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Results The mean age of the participants was 63.3 years, 35.8% were women, the mean duration of diabetes was 13.5 years, and 65.6% had a history of cardiovascular disease. The rate of the primary outcome was lower with canagliflozin than with placebo (occurring in 26.9 vs. 31.5 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.97; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.02 for superiority). Although on the basis of the prespecified hypothesis testing sequence the renal outcomes are not viewed as statistically significant, the results showed a possible benefit of canagliflozin with respect to the progression of albuminuria (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.79) and the composite outcome of a sustained 40% reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the need for renal-replacement therapy, or death from renal causes (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.77). Adverse reactions were consistent with the previously reported risks associated with canagliflozin except for an increased risk of amputation (6.3 vs. 3.4 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.75); amputations were primarily at the level of the toe or metatarsal. Conclusions In two trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes and an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, patients treated with canagliflozin had a lower risk of cardiovascular events than those who received placebo but a greater risk of amputation, primarily at the level of the toe or metatarsal. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; CANVAS and CANVAS-R ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01032629 and NCT01989754 , respectively.).

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          Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes.

          The effects of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, in addition to standard care, on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk are not known.
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            IDF diabetes atlas: global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030.

            Diabetes is an increasingly important condition globally and robust estimates of its prevalence are required for allocating resources. Data sources from 1980 to April 2011 were sought and characterised. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to select the most appropriate study or studies for each country, and estimates for countries without data were modelled. A logistic regression model was used to generate smoothed age-specific estimates which were applied to UN population estimates for 2011. A total of 565 data sources were reviewed, of which 170 sources from 110 countries were selected. In 2011 there are 366 million people with diabetes, and this is expected to rise to 552 million by 2030. Most people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries, and these countries will also see the greatest increase over the next 19 years. This paper builds on previous IDF estimates and shows that the global diabetes epidemic continues to grow. Recent studies show that previous estimates have been very conservative. The new IDF estimates use a simple and transparent approach and are consistent with recent estimates from the Global Burden of Disease study. IDF estimates will be updated annually. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Empagliflozin and Progression of Kidney Disease in Type 2 Diabetes.

              Diabetes confers an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular and renal events. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events. We wanted to determine the long-term renal effects of empagliflozin, an analysis that was a prespecified component of the secondary microvascular outcome of that trial.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                August 17 2017
                August 17 2017
                : 377
                : 7
                : 644-657
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1611925
                28605608
                © 2017
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