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      Insulin glargine supplementation during early management phase of diabetic ketoacidosis in children

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          Risk factors for cerebral edema in children with diabetic ketoacidosis. The Pediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

          Cerebral edema is an uncommon but devastating complication of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. Risk factors for this complication have not been clearly defined. In this multicenter study, we identified 61 children who had been hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis within a 15-year period and in whom cerebral edema had developed. Two additional groups of children with diabetic ketoacidosis but without cerebral edema were also identified: 181 randomly selected children and 174 children matched to those in the cerebral-edema group with respect to age at presentation, onset of diabetes (established vs. newly diagnosed disease), initial serum glucose concentration, and initial venous pH. Using logistic regression we compared the three groups with respect to demographic characteristics and biochemical variables at presentation and compared the matched groups with respect to therapeutic interventions and changes in biochemical values during treatment. A comparison of the children in the cerebral-edema group with those in the random control group showed that cerebral edema was significantly associated with lower initial partial pressures of arterial carbon dioxide (relative risk of cerebral edema for each decrease of 7.8 mm Hg [representing 1 SD], 3.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 6.3; P<0.001) and higher initial serum urea nitrogen concentrations (relative risk of cerebral edema for each increase of 9 mg per deciliter [3.2 mmol per liter] [representing 1 SD], 1.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.5; P=0.003). A comparison of the children with cerebral edema with those in the matched control group also showed that cerebral edema was associated with lower partial pressures of arterial carbon dioxide and higher serum urea nitrogen concentrations. Of the therapeutic variables, only treatment with bicarbonate was associated with cerebral edema, after adjustment for other covariates (relative risk, 4.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 12.1; P=0.008). Children with diabetic ketoacidosis who have low partial pressures of arterial carbon dioxide and high serum urea nitrogen concentrations at presentation and who are treated with bicarbonate are at increased risk for cerebral edema.
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            Predictors of acute complications in children with type 1 diabetes.

            Diabetic ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycemia are acute complications of type 1 diabetes that are related, respectively, to insufficient or excessive insulin treatment. However, little is known about additional modifiable risk factors. To examine the incidence of ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycemia in children with diabetes and to determine the factors that predict these complications. A cohort of 1243 children from infancy to age 19 years with type 1 diabetes who resided in the Denver, Colo, metropolitan area were followed up prospectively for 3994 person-years from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2000. Incidence of ketoacidosis leading to hospital admission or emergency department visit and severe hypoglycemia (loss of consciousness, seizure, or hospital admission or emergency department visit). The incidence of ketoacidosis was 8 per 100 person-years and increased with age in girls (4 per 100 person-years in or =13 years; P or =13 years), the risk of ketoacidosis in younger children increased with higher hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) (relative risk [RR], 1.68 per 1% increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-1.94) and higher reported insulin dose (RR, 1.40 per 0.2 U/kg per day; 95% CI, 1.20-1.64). In older children, the risk of ketoacidosis increased with higher HbA(1c) (RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.30-1.58), higher reported insulin dose (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.25), underinsurance (RR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.65-2.95), and presence of psychiatric disorders (for boys, RR, 1.59; 95% CI, 0.96-2.65; for girls, RR, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.25-4.61). The incidence of severe hypoglycemia was 19 per 100 person-years (P or =13 years). In younger children, the risk of severe hypoglycemia increased with diabetes duration (RR, 1.39 per 5 years; 95% CI, 1.16-1.69) and underinsurance (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.08-1.65). In older children, the risk of severe hypoglycemia increased with duration (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.25-1.51), underinsurance (RR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.11-1.81), lower HbA(1c) (RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.12-1.32), and presence of psychiatric disorders (RR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.23-1.98). Eighty percent of episodes occurred among the 20% of children who had recurrent events. Some children with diabetes remain at high risk for ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycemia. Age- and sex-specific incidence patterns suggest that ketoacidosis is a challenge in adolescent girls while severe hypoglycemia continues to affect disproportionally the youngest patients and boys of all ages. The pattern of modifiable risk factors indicates that underinsured children and those with psychiatric disorders or at the extremes of the HbA(1c) distribution should be targeted for specific interventions.
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              The risk and outcome of cerebral oedema developing during diabetic ketoacidosis.

              Cerebral oedema is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children with insulin dependent diabetes. To determine the risk and outcome of cerebral oedema complicating diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). All cases of cerebral oedema in England, Scotland, and Wales were reported through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit between October 1995 and September 1998. All episodes of DKA were reported by 225 paediatricians identified as involved in the care of children with diabetes through a separate reporting system between March 1996 and February 1998. Further information about presentation, management, and outcome was requested about the cases of cerebral oedema. The risk of cerebral oedema was investigated in relation to age, sex, seasonality, and whether diabetes was newly or previously diagnosed. A total of 34 cases of cerebral oedema and 2940 episodes of DKA were identified. The calculated risk of developing cerebral oedema was 6.8 per 1000 episodes of DKA. This was higher in new (11.9 per 1000 episodes) as opposed to established (3.8 per 1000) diabetes. There was no sex or age difference. Cerebral oedema was associated with a significant mortality (24%) and morbidity (35% of survivors). This first large population based study of cerebral oedema complicating DKA has produced risk estimates which are more reliable and less susceptible to bias than those from previous studies. Our study indicates that cerebral oedema remains an important complication of DKA during childhood and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Little is known of the aetiology of cerebral oedema in this condition and we are currently undertaking a case control study to address this issue.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Intensive Care Medicine
                Intensive Care Med
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0342-4642
                1432-1238
                July 2007
                May 17 2007
                July 2007
                : 33
                : 7
                : 1173-1178
                Article
                10.1007/s00134-007-0674-3
                © 2007

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