Background The number of patients receiving dialysis treatment is sustainably increasing, especially peritoneal dialysis. Objectives It is necessary to find out potential factors that may indicate the prognosis of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis treatment. Methods This study retrospectively involved 325 patients who received peritoneal dialysis treatment. Results Low serum albumin (HR = 2.254; 95% CI: 1.534–3.311; P < 0.001) and high FBG (Fasting blood glucose) (HR = 1.474; 95% CI: 1.025–2.120; P =0.037) were risk factors for death in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis treatment. Serum albumin (AUC = 0.683; P < 0.001) and creatinine (AUC = 0.625; P < 0.001) exhibited value of prognosis prediction. Both high FBG ( P =0.005) and low albumin ( P < 0.001) were associated with poor prognosis, and low albumin predicted poorer survival. Conclusions Low serum albumin and high fasting blood glucose were risk factors and associated with poor prognosis. Low albumin has a potential in predicting the prognosis of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis treatment.