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      State-Dependent Entrainment of Prefrontal Cortex Local Field Potential Activity Following Patterned Stimulation of the Cerebellar Vermis

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          The cerebellum is involved in sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional functions through cerebello-cerebral connectivity. Cerebellar neurostimulation thus likely affects cortical circuits, as has been shown in studies using cerebellar stimulation to treat neurological disorders through modulation of frontal EEG oscillations. Here we studied the effects of different frequencies of cerebellar stimulation on oscillations and coherence in the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex in the urethane-anesthetized rat. Local field potentials were recorded in the right lateral cerebellum (Crus I/II) and bilaterally in the prefrontal cortex (frontal association area, FrA) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Stimulation was delivered to the cerebellar vermis (lobule VII) using single pulses (0.2 Hz for 60 s), or repeated pulses at 1 Hz (30 s), 5 Hz (10 s), 25 Hz (2 s), and 50 Hz (1 s). Effects of stimulation were influenced by the initial state of EEG activity which varies over time during urethane-anesthesia; 1 Hz stimulation was more effective when delivered during the slow-wave state (Stage 1), while stimulation with single-pulse, 25, and 50 Hz showed stronger effects during the activated state (Stage 2). Single-pulses resulted in increases in oscillatory power in the delta and theta bands for the cerebellum, and in frequencies up to 80 Hz in cortical sites. 1 Hz stimulation induced a decrease in 0–30 Hz activity and increased activity in the 30–200 Hz range, in the right FrA. 5 Hz stimulation reduced power in high frequencies in Stage 1 and induced mixed effects during Stage 2.25 Hz stimulation increased cortical power at low frequencies during Stage 2, and increased power in higher frequency bands during Stage 1. Stimulation at 50 Hz increased delta-band power in all recording sites, with the strongest and most rapid effects in the cerebellum. 25 and 50 Hz stimulation also induced state-dependent effects on cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical coherence at high frequencies. Cerebellar stimulation can therefore entrain field potential activity in the FrA and drive synchronization of cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical networks in a frequency-dependent manner. These effects highlight the role of the cerebellar vermis in modulating large-scale synchronization of neural networks in non-motor frontal cortex.

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          Most cited references 72

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          Dynamic predictions: oscillations and synchrony in top-down processing.

          Classical theories of sensory processing view the brain as a passive, stimulus-driven device. By contrast, more recent approaches emphasize the constructive nature of perception, viewing it as an active and highly selective process. Indeed, there is ample evidence that the processing of stimuli is controlled by top-down influences that strongly shape the intrinsic dynamics of thalamocortical networks and constantly create predictions about forthcoming sensory events. We discuss recent experiments indicating that such predictions might be embodied in the temporal structure of both stimulus-evoked and ongoing activity, and that synchronous oscillations are particularly important in this process. Coherence among subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations could be exploited to express selective functional relationships during states of expectancy or attention, and these dynamic patterns could allow the grouping and selection of distributed neuronal responses for further processing.
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            Entrainment of brain oscillations by transcranial alternating current stimulation.

            Novel methods for neuronal entrainment [1-4] provide the unique opportunity to modulate perceptually relevant brain oscillations [5, 6] in a frequency-specific manner and to study their functional impact on distinct cognitive functions. Recently, evidence has emerged that tACS (transcranial alternating current stimulation) can modulate cortical oscillations [7-9]. However, the study of electrophysiological effects has been hampered so far by the absence of concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Here, we applied 10 Hz tACS to the parieto-occipital cortex and utilized simultaneous EEG recordings to study neuronal entrainment during stimulation. We pioneer a novel approach for simultaneous tACS-EEG recordings and successfully separate stimulation artifacts from ongoing and event-related cortical activity. Our results reveal that 10 Hz tACS increases parieto-occipital alpha activity and synchronizes cortical oscillators with similar intrinsic frequencies to the entrainment frequency. Additionally, we demonstrate that tACS modulates target detection performance in a phase-dependent fashion highlighting the causal role of alpha oscillations for visual perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Consensus paper: pathological role of the cerebellum in autism.

              There has been significant advancement in various aspects of scientific knowledge concerning the role of cerebellum in the etiopathogenesis of autism. In the current consensus paper, we will observe the diversity of opinions regarding the involvement of this important site in the pathology of autism. Recent emergent findings in literature related to cerebellar involvement in autism are discussed, including: cerebellar pathology, cerebellar imaging and symptom expression in autism, cerebellar genetics, cerebellar immune function, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and oxytocin-related changes in autism, motor control and cognitive deficits, cerebellar coordination of movements and cognition, gene-environment interactions, therapeutics in autism, and relevant animal models of autism. Points of consensus include presence of abnormal cerebellar anatomy, abnormal neurotransmitter systems, oxidative stress, cerebellar motor and cognitive deficits, and neuroinflammation in subjects with autism. Undefined areas or areas requiring further investigation include lack of treatment options for core symptoms of autism, vermal hypoplasia, and other vermal abnormalities as a consistent feature of autism, mechanisms underlying cerebellar contributions to cognition, and unknown mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation.

                Author and article information

                Front Syst Neurosci
                Front Syst Neurosci
                Front. Syst. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                29 October 2019
                : 13
                1Department of Health, Kinesiology, and Applied Physiology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University , Montreal, QC, Canada
                2Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University , Montreal, QC, Canada
                Author notes

                Edited by: Conor J. Houghton, University of Bristol, United Kingdom

                Reviewed by: Krystal Lynn Parker, The University of Iowa, United States; Mario Rosanova, University of Milan, Italy

                *Correspondence: Richard Courtemanche, richard.courtemanche@ 123456concordia.ca
                Copyright © 2019 Tremblay, Chapman and Courtemanche.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Equations: 1, References: 106, Pages: 16, Words: 0
                Funded by: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada 10.13039/501100000038
                Funded by: Concordia University 10.13039/501100002914
                Funded by: Fonds de Recherche du Québec - Santé 10.13039/501100000156
                Original Research


                oscillations, synchrony, cerebellum, vermis, prefrontal cortex, stimulation


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