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      Comparative analysis of functional mobility among Hungarian community-living and institutionalized elderly individuals

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          Reduced functional mobility is a risk factor for falls. The Timed Up and Go test is a complex measurement tool for functional mobility. Our aims were to assess the functional mobility of: (a) community-living elderly who were participating in an exercise programme ( n = 40; mean age = 73.7 years), (b) community-living elderly who were physically inactive ( n = 40; mean age = 74.1 years), and (c) institutionalized elderly ( n = 40; mean age = 73.5 years) and to compare the results with cut-off values for risk of fall.

          Materials and methods

          After measuring functional mobility, one-way independent ANOVAs and sample t-tests were used for analysis.


          The functional mobility of the active participants was better than that of the inactive ( p < .001) and institutionalized participants ( p < .001). There was no significant difference between the inactive and institutionalized participants ( p = .990). The functional mobility of the active participants was better, whereas the functional mobility of the inactive participants was worse than the cut-off value of 13.5 s for risk of fall for community-living elderly. The functional mobility of the institutionalized participants did not differ from the 15-s reference value for predicting risk of fall.


          The results indicate that regular physical activity has a positive effect on maintaining functional mobility among both community-living and institutionalized elderly individuals.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Risk factors and risk assessment tools for falls in hospital in-patients: a systematic review.

          To identify all published papers on risk factors and risk assessment tools for falls in hospital inpatients. To identify clinical risk assessment tools or individual clinical risk factors predictive of falls, with the ultimate aim of informing the design of effective fall prevention strategies. Systematic literature review (Cochrane methodology). Independent assessment of quality against agreed criteria. Calculation of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for risk factors and of sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value for risk assessment tools (with odds ratios and confidence intervals), where published data sufficient. 28 papers on risk factors were identified, with 15 excluded from further analysis. Despite the identification of 47 papers purporting to describe falls risk assessment tools, only six papers were identified where risk assessment tools had been subjected to prospective validation, and only two where validation had been performed in two or more patient cohorts. A small number of significant falls risk factors emerged consistently, despite the heterogeneity of settings namely gait instability, agitated confusion, urinary incontinence/frequency, falls history and prescription of 'culprit' drugs (especially sedative/hypnotics). Simple risk assessment tools constructed of similar variables have been shown to predict falls with sensitivity and specificity in excess of 70%, although validation in a variety of settings and in routine clinical use is lacking. Effective falls interventions in this population may require the use of better-validated risk assessment tools, or alternatively, attention to common reversible falls risk factors in all patients.
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            Falls and their prevention in elderly people: what does the evidence show?

            A large proportion of falls and fall injuries in older people is due to multiple risk factors, many of which probably can be modified or eliminated with targeted fall prevention interventions. These interventions must be feasible, sustainable, and cost effective to be practical for widespread use. The most promising prevention strategies involve multidimensional fall risk assessment and exercise interventions. Incorporating these intervention strategies whenever feasible into a fall prevention program seems to be the most effective means for fall prevention in older adults.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Physical consequences of falls in the elderly: a literature review from 1995 to 2010


                Author and article information

                Developments in Health Sciences
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                11 September 2019
                : 1-5
                [ 1 ]Department of Morphology and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University , Budapest, Hungary
                [ 2 ]Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University , Budapest, Hungary
                [ 3 ] Old Age Home of the Municipality of Budapest , Budapest, Hungary
                [ 4 ]Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University , Budapest, Hungary
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Dr. Éva Kovács; Department of Morphology and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Vas Str. 17, Budapest H-1088, Hungary; E-mail: kovacse@ 123456se-etk.hu
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated. (SID_1)

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 5
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