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      Safe Use of Citric Acid-Based Dialysate and Heparin Removal in Postdilution Online Hemodiafiltration

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          Abstract

          Background: Anticoagulation of the blood circuit with heparin is essential for hemodialysis, but exposes patients to several risks (bleeding, thrombocytopenia, etc.). The use of citric acid-based dialysate (CitA-D) allows the reduction of heparin in conventional hemodialysis. We evaluated the feasibility of using CitA-D in postdilution online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) and of removing heparin. Methods: We prospectively compared chlorhydric acid-based dialysate with CitA-D in 10 patients treated by OL-HDF. First, we reduced heparin by half the dose and then we totally removed anticoagulation. Results: For all 120 sessions using heparin-free CitA-D, only one clotting episode related to an arteriovenous fistula stenosis was observed. No adverse clinical effect was observed. (Kt/V)<sub>sp</sub>, predialytic serum bicarbonate, calcium, phosphate, parathroid hormone, and β<sub>2</sub>-microglobulin remained the same in all cases. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the use of CitA-D in OL-HDF is safe and allows heparin removal in most patients.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Increased efficiency of hemodialysis with citrate dialysate: a prospective controlled study.

          A bicarbonate dialysate acidified with citrate (CD) has been reported to have local anticoagulant effect. This study examines the effect of CD on dialysis efficiency, measured as eKt/Vurea, and predialysis concentrations of BUN, creatinine, phosphate, and beta-2 microglobulin in chronic dialysis units. Three outpatient chronic hemodialysis units with 142 patients were switched to CD for 6 mo. Using each patient's prior 6 mo on regular bicarbonate dialysate acidified by acetate (AD) as control, eKt/Vurea was compared with that of CD. Follow-up data for 7 mo after the study were collected from about one-half of the participants remaining on CD and the others returned to AD. eKt/Vurea, increased (P < 0.0001) from pre-CD value of 1.51 +/- 0.01 to 1.57 +/- 0.01 with CD. During CD use beta-2 microglobulin levels declined (P = 0.0001) from 28.1 +/- 10.0 to 25.9 +/- 10.0. Similarly, the concentrations of BUN, creatinine, and phosphate also decreased on CD (P < 0.008). In the poststudy period, eKt/Vurea for the patients staying on CD remained unchanged at 1.60 +/- 0.17 versus 1.59 +/- 0.18 (P = NS), whereas in those returning to AD the eKt/Vurea decreased from 1.55 +/- 0.20 to 1.52 +/- 0.17 (P < 0.0001). Data suggest that CD use is associated with increased solute removal.
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            Citrate- vs. acetate-based dialysate in bicarbonate haemodialysis: consequences on haemodynamics, coagulation, acid-base status, and electrolytes

            Background A concentrate for bicarbonate haemodialysis acidified with citrate instead of acetate has been marketed in recent years. The small amount of citrate used (one-fifth of the concentration adopted in regional anticoagulation) protects against intradialyser clotting while minimally affecting the calcium concentration. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of citrate- and acetate-based dialysates on systemic haemodynamics, coagulation, acid-base status, calcium balance and dialysis efficiency. Methods In 25 patients who underwent a total of 375 dialysis sessions, an acetate dialysate (A) was compared with a citrate dialysate with (C+) or without (C) calcium supplementation (0.25 mmol/L) in a randomised single-blind cross-over study. Systemic haemodynamics were evaluated using pulse-wave analysis. Coagulation, acid-base status, calcium balance and dialysis efficiency were assessed using standard biochemical markers. Results Patients receiving the citrate dialysate had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (BP) (-4.3 mmHg, p < 0.01) and peripheral resistances (PR) (-51 dyne.sec.cm-5, p < 0.001) while stroke volume was not increased. In hypertensive patients there was a substantial reduction in BP (-7.8 mmHg, p < 0.01). With the C+ dialysate the BP gap was less pronounced but the reduction in PR was even greater (-226 dyne.sec.cm-5, p < 0.001). Analyses of the fluctuations in PR and of subjective tolerance suggested improved haemodynamic stability with the citrate dialysate. Furthermore, an increase in pre-dialysis bicarbonate and a decrease in pre-dialysis BUN, post-dialysis phosphate and ionised calcium were noted. Systemic coagulation activation was not influenced by citrate. Conclusion The positive impact on dialysis efficiency, acid-base status and haemodynamics, as well as the subjective tolerance, together indicate that citrate dialysate can significantly contribute to improving haemodialysis in selected patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00718289
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              NO CHANGE IN CORRECTED β2-MICROGLOBULIN CONCENTRATION AFTER CUPROPHANE HAEMODIALYSIS

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2012
                March 2013
                09 January 2013
                : 34
                : 3-4
                : 336-343
                Affiliations
                aHemodialysis Center Henri Küntziger, AURA, and bDepartment of Biophysics, Faculté de Médecine Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
                Author notes
                *Caroline Créput, Centre Henri Küntziger, AURA, 5 rue du Bessin, FR–75015 Paris (France), E-Mail caroline.creput@auraparis.org
                Article
                345342 Blood Purif 2012;34:336–343
                10.1159/000345342
                23306782
                © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

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