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      Emerging fungal infections in immunocompromised patients

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      F1000 Medicine Reports

      Faculty of 1000 Ltd

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          Abstract

          Invasive fungal infections are infections of importance and are increasing in incidence in immunocompromised hosts such as patients who have had hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants. Despite our expanded antifungal armamentarium, these infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Indeed, certain trends have emerged in these invasive fungal infections: a rise in the incidence of invasive mold infections, an increase in the non-albicans strains of Candida spp. causing invasive disease and, finally, the emergence of less susceptible fungal strains that are resistant to the broader-spectrum antifungal agents due to overutilization of these agents. Clinicians must recognize the patient groups that are potentially at risk for these invasive fungal infections, as well as the risk factors for such infections. By using more sensitive nonculture-based diagnostic techniques, appropriate therapy may be initiated earlier to enhance survival in these immunocompromised patient populations.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Treatment of aspergillosis: clinical practice guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

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            Invasive fungal infections among organ transplant recipients: results of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET).

            Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among organ transplant recipients. Multicenter prospective surveillance data to determine disease burden and secular trends are lacking. The Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) is a consortium of 23 US transplant centers, including 15 that contributed to the organ transplant recipient dataset. We prospectively identified IFIs among organ transplant recipients from March, 2001 through March, 2006 at these sites. To explore trends, we calculated the 12-month cumulative incidence among 9 sequential cohorts. During the surveillance period, 1208 IFIs were identified among 1063 organ transplant recipients. The most common IFIs were invasive candidiasis (53%), invasive aspergillosis (19%), cryptococcosis (8%), non-Aspergillus molds (8%), endemic fungi (5%), and zygomycosis (2%). Median time to onset of candidiasis, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis was 103, 184, and 575 days, respectively. Among a cohort of 16,808 patients who underwent transplantation between March 2001 and September 2005 and were followed through March 2006, a total of 729 IFIs were reported among 633 persons. One-year cumulative incidences of the first IFI were 11.6%, 8.6%, 4.7%, 4.0%, 3.4%, and 1.3% for small bowel, lung, liver, heart, pancreas, and kidney transplant recipients, respectively. One-year incidence was highest for invasive candidiasis (1.95%) and aspergillosis (0.65%). Trend analysis showed a slight increase in cumulative incidence from 2002 to 2005. We detected a slight increase in IFIs during the surveillance period. These data provide important insights into the timing and incidence of IFIs among organ transplant recipients, which can help to focus effective prevention and treatment strategies.
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              Epidemiology and outcome of mould infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

              Reports have focused on the emergence of moulds as pathogens in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplants. To review the incidence of and risks for mould infections, we examined the records of 5589 patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle) from 1985 through 1999. After 1992, the incidence of invasive aspergillosis increased in allograft recipients and remained high through the 1990s. Infections with non-fumigatus Aspergillus species, Fusarium species, and Zygomycetes increased during the late 1990s, especially in patients who received multiple transplants. Although infection caused by Scedosporium species was common in patients who had neutropenia, infection caused by Zygomycetes typically occurred later after transplantation, when patients had graft-versus-host disease. The overall 1-year survival rate was equally poor (similar20%) for all patients with mould infections. The results of the present study demonstrate the changing epidemiology of mould infections, emphasizing the increasing importance of amphotericin B--resistant organisms and the differences in risks and outcome of infection with different filamentous fungi.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                F1000 Med Rep
                F1000 Medicine Reports
                Faculty of 1000 Ltd
                1757-5931
                01 July 2011
                2011
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Transplant Infectious Diseases, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, University Health Network, Toronto General Hospital 200 Elizabeth Street, NCSB 11-1212, Toronto, ON, M5G 2C4Canada
                [2 ]Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital Singapore
                Article
                14
                10.3410/M3-14
                3155160
                21876720
                © 2011 Faculty of 1000 Ltd

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. You may not use this work for commercial purposes

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                Review Article

                Medicine

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