+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Detection and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species in wild-caught pet spiny-tailed lizards

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Uromastyx is a genus of the herbivorous agamid lizards, also known as spiny-tailed lizards or mastigures, which are found in parts of Africa and the Middle East. Currently, several species of this genus are available in the international pet trade in Japan. In this study, two imported wild-caught spiny-tailed lizards (Arabian blue mastigure, Uromastyx ornata philbyi, and Sudan mastigure, Uromastyx dispar flavifasciata) were diagnosed with a Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) infection based on the presence of the oocysts in the rectal feces using sucrose flotation and light microscopy examination at a local animal hospital in Tokyo, Japan. One of the lizards had died, and histopathological examination revealed enteritis with the Cryptosporidium parasite. Sequence analyses using the small subunit ribosomal RNA, actin, and 70-kDa heat shock protein genes indicated that the lizards had contracted a novel variant of C. avium that commonly infects avian species.

          Graphical abstract


          • Two pet wild-caught spiny-tailed lizards exhibited gastrointestinal symptoms.

          • Lizards were both infected with a novel Cryptosporidium avium variant.

          • First detection of avian-associated Cryptosporidium species in the family Agamidae.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 32

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Cryptosporidium species in humans and animals: current understanding and research needs.

          Cryptosporidium is increasingly recognized as one of the major causes of moderate to severe diarrhoea in developing countries. With treatment options limited, control relies on knowledge of the biology and transmission of the members of the genus responsible for disease. Currently, 26 species are recognized as valid on the basis of morphological, biological and molecular data. Of the nearly 20 Cryptosporidium species and genotypes that have been reported in humans, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are responsible for the majority of infections. Livestock, particularly cattle, are one of the most important reservoirs of zoonotic infections. Domesticated and wild animals can each be infected with several Cryptosporidium species or genotypes that have only a narrow host range and therefore have no major public health significance. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing techniques will significantly improve our understanding of the taxonomy and transmission of Cryptosporidium species, and the investigation of outbreaks and monitoring of emerging and virulent subtypes. Important research gaps remain including a lack of subtyping tools for many Cryptosporidium species of public and veterinary health importance, and poor understanding of the genetic determinants of host specificity of Cryptosporidium species and impact of climate change on the transmission of Cryptosporidium.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Cryptosporidium spp. in pet birds: genetic diversity and potential public health significance.

            To characterize the prevalence and assess the zoonotic transmission burden of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in pet birds in Henan, China, 434 fecal samples were acquired from 14 families of birds in pet shops. The overall prevalence of Cryptopsoridium was 8.1% (35/434) by the Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The Cryptosporidium-positive samples were analyzed by DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Three Cryptosporidium species and two genotypes were identified, including C. baileyi (18/35 or 51.4%) in five red-billed leiothrixes (Leiothrix lutea), four white Java sparrows (Padda oryzivora), four common mynas (Acridotheres tristis), two zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a crested Lark (Galerida cristata), a Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae), and a black-billed magpie (Pica pica); Cryptosporidium meleagridis (3/35 or 8.6%) in a Bohemian waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus), a Rufous turtle dove (Streptopelia orientalis), and a fan-tailed pigeon (Columba livia); Cryptosporidium galli (5/35 or 14.3%) in four Bohemian waxwings (Bombycilla garrulus) and a silver-eared Mesia (Leiothrix argentauris); Cryptosporidium avian genotype III (3/35 or 8.6%) in two cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and a red-billed blue magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha); and Cryptosporidium avian genotype V (6/35 or 17.1%) in six cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Among the pet birds, 12 species represented new hosts for Cryptosporidum infections. The presence of C. meleagridis raises questions on potential zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis from pet birds to humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Identification of novel Cryptosporidium genotypes from avian hosts.

              A total of 430 avian-derived fecal specimens were randomly collected from selected Western Australian commercial aviaries, poultry farms, hatcheries, wildlife parks, and the Perth Zoo and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium by PCR. Of these, 27 Cryptosporidium-positive isolates were detected, characterized, and compared with 11 avian-derived isolates from the Czech Republic at the 18S rRNA and actin gene loci. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis identified four genetically distinct genotypes, avian genotypes I to IV, from various avian hosts. In addition, the host range for Cryptosporidium galli was extended. Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium andersoni were also identified in a tawny frogmouth and a quail-crested wood partridge, respectively.

                Author and article information

                Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl
                Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl
                International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife
                09 January 2020
                April 2020
                09 January 2020
                : 11
                : 83-87
                [a ]Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Musashino, Tokyo, Japan
                [b ]Banquet Animal Hospital, Ikejiri, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan
                [c ]Department of Veterinary Pathology, Rakuno Gakuen University Animal Medical Center, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, Japan
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyonancho, Musashino, Tokyo, 180-8602, Japan. tokiwa@

                These authors contributed equally.


                Department of Environmental Parasitology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.

                © 2020 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (



                Comment on this article