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      Depression, Stress, and Quality of Life in Persons with Chronic Kidney Disease: The Heart and Soul Study

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          Background: The effect of mild chronic kidney disease (CKD) on depression, stress, quality of life (QOL), and health status is not well understood. We compared these outcomes in subjects with and without CKD. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 967 outpatients enrolled in the Heart and Soul Study. CKD was defined as a measured creatinine clearance <60 ml/min. Outcome measures included depressive symptoms measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), stress measured using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and QOL and overall health rated as excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor. Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms (17 vs. 19%, p = 0.4) or perceived stress (11 vs. 16%, p = 0.09) did not vary significantly by CKD. The prevalence of fair or poor QOL was not significantly different in subjects with CKD, compared with those without CKD (24 vs. 23%, p = 0.65). Age-adjusted analyses revealed a significant association of CKD with QOL (p = 0.003), however, this association no longer reached statistical significance after adjustment for confounders (p = 0.06). Subjects with CKD were more likely to report poor or fair overall health than subjects without CKD (42 vs. 34%, p = 0.03). After multivariate adjustment, CKD remained significantly associated with worse overall health (OR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.21–2.24, p = 0.001), and modestly associated with QOL (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 0.99–1.75, p = 0.06), but had no association with depression (p = 0.48) or stress (p = 0.24). Conclusion: In this study of persons with coronary artery disease, subjects with CKD had reduced overall health and modestly reduced QOL; however, mental health was similar in those with and without CKD. These findings suggest that self- assessed overall health may decline at earlier stages of renal dysfunction than mental health outcomes or QOL.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Protective and Damaging Effects of Mediators of Stress: Elaborating and Testing the Concepts of Allostasis and Allostatic Load

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            The quality of life of patients with end-stage renal disease.

            We assessed the quality of life of 859 patients undergoing dialysis or transplantation, with the goal of ascertaining whether objective and subjective measures of the quality of life were influenced by case mix or treatment. We found that 79.1 per cent of the transplant recipients were able to function at nearly normal levels, as compared with between 47.5 and 59.1 per cent of the patients treated with dialysis (depending on the type). Nearly 75 per cent of the transplant recipients were able to work, as compared with between 24.7 and 59.3 per cent of the patients undergoing dialysis. On three subjective measures (life satisfaction, well-being, and psychological affect) transplant recipients had a higher quality of life than patients on dialysis. Among the patients treated with dialysis, those undergoing treatment at home had the highest quality of life. All quality-of-life differences were found to persist even after the patient case mix had been controlled statistically. Finally, the quality of life of transplant recipients compared well with that of the general population, but despite favorable subjective assessments, patients undergoing dialysis did not work or function at the same level as people in the general population.
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              Depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life: the Heart and Soul Study.

              Little is known regarding the extent to which patient-reported health status, including symptom burden, physical limitation, and quality of life, is determined by psychosocial vs physiological factors among patients with chronic disease. To compare the contributions of depressive symptoms and measures of cardiac function to the health status of patients with coronary artery disease. Cross-sectional study of 1024 adults with stable coronary artery disease recruited from outpatient clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area between September 2000 and December 2002. Main Measures Measurement of depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ); assessment of cardiac function by measuring left ventricular ejection fraction on echocardiography, exercise capacity on treadmill testing, and ischemia on stress echocardiography; and measurement of a range of health status outcomes, including symptom burden, physical limitation, and quality of life, using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire. Participants were also asked to rate their overall health as excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor. Of the 1024 participants, 201 (20%) had depressive symptoms (PHQ score > or =10). Participants with depressive symptoms were more likely than those without depressive symptoms to report at least mild symptom burden (60% vs 33%; P<.001), mild physical limitation (73% vs 40%; P<.001), mildly diminished quality of life (67% vs 31%; P<.001), and fair or poor overall health (66% vs 30%; P<.001). In multivariate analyses adjusting for measures of cardiac function and other patient characteristics, depressive symptoms were strongly associated with greater symptom burden (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.7; P =.002), greater physical limitation (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.1-4.6; P<.001), worse quality of life (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.2-4.6; P<.001), and worse overall health (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9; P<.001). Although decreased exercise capacity was associated with worse health status, left ventricular ejection fraction and ischemia were not. Among patients with coronary disease, depressive symptoms are strongly associated with patient-reported health status, including symptom burden, physical limitation, quality of life, and overall health. Conversely, 2 traditional measures of cardiac function-ejection fraction and ischemia-are not. Efforts to improve health status should include assessment and treatment of depressive symptoms.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                April 2006
                09 December 2005
                : 103
                : 1
                : c1-c7
                aSection of General Internal Medicine, San Francisco VA Medical Center, and bDepartments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, Calif., USA
                90112 PMC2776701 Nephron Clin Pract 2006;103:c1–c7
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 35, Pages: 1
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