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      Assessing Human Exposure to Organic Pollutants in the Indoor Environment

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          Atmospheric aerosols: composition, transformation, climate and health effects.

          Aerosols are of central importance for atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. The airborne solid and liquid particles in the nanometer to micrometer size range influence the energy balance of the Earth, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric circulation, and the abundance of greenhouse and reactive trace gases. Moreover, they play important roles in the reproduction of biological organisms and can cause or enhance diseases. The primary parameters that determine the environmental and health effects of aerosol particles are their concentration, size, structure, and chemical composition. These parameters, however, are spatially and temporally highly variable. The quantification and identification of biological particles and carbonaceous components of fine particulate matter in the air (organic compounds and black or elemental carbon, respectively) represent demanding analytical challenges. This Review outlines the current state of knowledge, major open questions, and research perspectives on the properties and interactions of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on climate and human health.
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            What are the sources of exposure to eight frequently used phthalic acid esters in Europeans?

            Phthalic acid esters (phthalates) are used as plasticizers in numerous consumer products, commodities, and building materials. Consequently, phthalates are found in human residential and occupational environments in high concentrations, both in air and in dust. Phthalates are also ubiquitous food and environmental contaminants. An increasing number of studies sampling human urine reveal the ubiquitous phthalate exposure of consumers in industrialized countries. At the same time, recent toxicological studies have demonstrated the potential of the most important phthalates to disturb the human hormonal system and human sexual development and reproduction. Additionally, phthalates are suspected to trigger asthma and dermal diseases in children. To find the important sources of phthalates in Europeans, a scenario-based approach is applied here. Scenarios representing realistic exposure situations are generated to calculate the age-specific range in daily consumer exposure to eight phthalates. The scenarios demonstrate that exposure of infant and adult consumers is caused by different sources in many cases. Infant consumers experience significantly higher daily exposure to phthalates in relation to their body weight than older consumers. The use of consumer products and different indoor sources dominate the exposure to dimethyl, diethyl, benzylbutyl, diisononyl, and diisodecyl phthalates, whereas food has a major influence on the exposure to diisobutyl, dibutyl, and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalates. The scenario-based approach chosen in the present study provides a link between the knowledge on emission sources of phthalates and the concentrations of phthalate metabolites found in human urine.
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              An absorption model of gas/particle partitioning of organic compounds in the atmosphere

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Angewandte Chemie International Edition
                Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
                Wiley
                14337851
                August 13 2018
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry; Fraunhofer WKI; 38108 Braunschweig Bienroder Weg 54E Germany
                [2 ]Department of Building Science; Tsinghua University; Beijing Key Laboratory of Indoor Air Quality Evaluation and Control; Beijing 100084 PR China
                [3 ]Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance (IPA); Institute of the Ruhr-University Bochum; 44789 Bochum Bürkle-de-la-Camp Platz 1 Germany
                [4 ]Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI); Rutgers University; 170 Frelinghuysen Road Piscataway NJ 08854 USA
                Article
                10.1002/anie.201711023
                29537125
                f5605b6a-6c4d-4080-a39c-b9ee2899e22c
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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