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      Serum IgA/C3 Ratio May Be a Useful Marker of Disease Activity in Severe Henoch-Schönlein Nephritis

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: This study was designed to investigate whether the serum IgA/C3 ratio can be a serologic marker of disease activity in children with severe Henoch-Schönlein nephritis (HSN). Methods: Twelve HSN patients who were treated with steroids and cyclosporine were examined. The levels of serum IgA and C3 were measured using an international reference preparation (IFCC/CRM470) and a renal biopsy was performed in all patients before and after therapy. After therapy, patients were divided into 3 groups: complete remission (n = 6, group I), mild urinary abnormalities (n = 3, group II), and active renal disease (n = 3, group III). Results: The serum IgA/C3 ratio decreased significantly in groups I and II after therapy (2.62 ± 0.82 vs. 2.02 ± 0.52, p = 0.02), whereas the ratio in group III increased, although it was not statistically significant (2.13 ± 0.93 vs. 4.67 ± 1.71, p = 0.25). A follow-up renal biopsy revealed that the activity index was reduced in groups I and II (7.0 ± 2.4 vs. 3.6 ± 1.6, p = 0.016), and not changed in group III (7.3 ± 2.1 vs. 9.3 ± 2.5, p = 0.25). The activity index at a follow-up renal biopsy correlated positively with the changes of the serum IgA/C3 ratio: posttherapy activity index = 1.20 × ΔIgA/C3 + 4.78 (r = 0.635, p = 0.027); where ΔIgA/C3 is posttherapy IgA/C3 – pretherapy IgA/C3. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the serum IgA/C3 ratio may be a useful marker to predict disease activity and histologic severity in HSN.

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          Most cited references 18

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          The adult kidney 24 years after childhood Henoch-Schönlein purpura: a retrospective cohort study.

          Henoch-Schönlein purpura arising in childhood could cause renal impairment or even an end-stage renal disease later in life. We aimed to assess long-term outcome of childhood Henoch-Schönlein purpura after 24 years. We studied a cohort of 26 boys and 26 girls who were treated for Henoch-Schönlein purpura at Helsinki University Hospital during 1964-83. Mean follow-up was 24.1 years (SD 6.0; 16.4-36.5). All participants were asked about their state of health in a questionnaire, and 47 (90%) were examined by a doctor. Patients' medical history data were obtained from health-care centres and regional hospitals. Seven (35%) of 20 adults who had severe Henoch-Schönlein purpura and glomerulonephritis at onset had renal impairment as adults, compared with two (7%) of 27 with mild or no renal symptoms at onset (relative risk 4.7, 95% CI 1.3-18.7). Relative risk for a poor outcome was 5.0 in women (1.1-32.5) and 2.0 in men (0.2-17.5). All patients with no renal symptoms at onset had a good outcome after 24 years of follow-up. Severity of first kidney biopsy finding did not correlate with risk of a poor outcome. 16 (70%) of 23 pregnancies had been complicated by hypertension, proteinuria, or both. Five (56%) of the nine women with complicated pregnancies had a poor renal outcome. Long-term follow-up of all patients who had Henoch-Schönlein purpura with severe renal symptoms at onset is needed during adulthood. All women who had even mild renal symptoms at onset of Henoch-Schönlein purpura should be carefully observed during and after pregnancy.
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            Prognosis of Henoch-Schönlein nephritis in children.

            All the survivors of a series of 88 patients with Henoch-Schönlein nephritis were examined after a follow-up of six and a half to 21 years (mean 9-9). Sixty-one patients had no demonstrable abnormality; six had minor urinary abnormalities; five had hypertension without urinary abnormally or renal dysfunction; four had heavy proteinuria; eight were in chronic renal failure, three of whom were on regular dialysis; and four patients had died within 25 months of onset. Neither corticosteroids nor immunosuppressive drugs alone or in combination appeared to influence the outcome. A clinical presentation with a combination of acute nephritis and a nephrotic syndrome and a high proportion of crescents in renal biopsy specimens was associated with a poor outcome. Neither the clinical presentation nor the renal morphology were, however, precise determinants of outcome. Outcome was not related to age, associated streptococcal infection, or recurrences of the rash. The clinical state two years after presentation was compared with the state six and a half years or more after presentation in 76 patients. The clinical state had changed in 32 patients, in 17 of whom it had deteriorated. It was not possible to identify with any certainty the patients who would deteriorate (or improve). Patients who have had Henoch-Schönlein nephritis should be followed up for at least five years.
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              What is the difference between IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis?

              Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN) are considered to be related diseases since both can be encountered consecutively in the same patient, they have been described in twins, and bear identical pathological and biological abnormalities. Apart from the presence of extrarenal clinical signs found only in HSPN, other differences are noticed between the two diseases. The peak age ranges between 15 and 30 years for a diagnosis of IgAN, whereas HSPN is mainly seen in childhood. Nephritic and/or nephrotic syndromes are more often seen at presentation in HSPN. In contrast to IgAN, HSPN has been described in association with hypersensitivity. Endocapillary and extracapillary inflammations as well as fibrin deposits in the glomerulus are more frequent in HSPN. No major biological differences have been found between the two illnesses, except for a larger size of circulating IgA-containing complexes (IgA-CC) and a greater incidence of increased plasma IgE levels in HSPN. As tissue infiltration by leukocytes is a major feature of HSPN vasculitis, a possible role of a more potent activation of the latter cells by IgA-CC and/or circulating chemokines in HSPN should be considered. Further studies are required to elucidate this possible mechanism as well as the role of hypersensitivity in HSPN.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2005
                October 2005
                08 June 2005
                : 101
                : 2
                : c72-c78
                Affiliations
                Departments of aPediatrics, bPathology, and cLaboratory Medicine, Institute of Kidney Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                Article
                86225 Nephron Clin Pract 2005;101:c72–c78
                10.1159/000086225
                15942254
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 26, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/86225
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