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      Seasonal prevalence of trypanosomosis, Glossina density and infection along the escarpment of Omo River, Loma district, southern Ethiopia

      a , b , b ,

      Heliyon

      Elsevier

      Ethiopia, Glossina, Loma, Omo river, Season, Trypanosome

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          Abstract

          Background

          The temporal information of trypanosomosis and tsetse apparent density is very limited in the southern part of the country. So, the study was conducted to estimate the temporal, dry and wet seasons, prevalence of cattle trypanosomosis, and tsetse fly apparent density and its infection by trypanosome along the escarpment of Omo River, Loma district, Southern Ethiopia.

          Methods

          A total of 964 cattle (482 in each seasons) were examined for trypanosomosis using buffy coat technique. For Glossina and biting flies study a total of 80 odor-baited, acetone and aged cow urine, NGU traps were deployed around the watering and grazing areas.

          Results

          The overall prevalence of cattle trypanosomosis was 4.98% of which 3.1% and 6.8% accounted to dry and wet seasons, respectively. The prevalence of trypanosomosis was significantly higher during wet season (OR = 1.93, P < 0.05), in poor body condition (OR = 3.71, P < 0.05) and in black coat colour (OR = 13.18, P < 0.05) animals. Two species of Trypanosome, T. congolense and T. vivax, were circulating in the area both in dry and wet seasons. A total of 327 Glossina (126 G. pallidipes and 201 G. fuscipes) were traped by using odour baited 80 NGU traps. The overall apparent density of Glossina was 4.1 Flies/Trap/Day. Relatively higher Glossina/Trap/Day caught in wet season (4.9 Flies/Trap/Day) than dry season (3.3 Flies/Trap/Day). Two species of Glossina namely G. pallidipes and G. fuscipes were distributed in the study areas. From the flies caught 127 Glossina were randomly selected and dissected. The overall proportion of Glossina infection was 15% with higher proportion of infection in wet season (19.6%) than the dry season (11.3%). Higher infection proportion was observed in G. pallidipes.

          Conclusion

          Trypansomosis is the major challenge for cattle productivity in the district. So to reduce the impact trypanosomosis and Glossina active community participation can play a key role.

          Abstract

          Ethiopia, Glossina, Loma, Omo river, Season, Trypanosome

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          Most cited references 40

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          The history of African trypanosomiasis

          The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.
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            An improved parasitological technique for the diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis.

            Light microscopic examination of the buffy coat zone of a microhaematocrit capillary tube expressed on to a slide was found to be consistently more reliable than other standard techniques in detecting trypanosomes in the circulation of cattle. This method alaos allowed identification of different trypanosome species. Optimal results were obtained using darkground illumination.
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              Land cover and tsetse fly distributions in sub-Saharan Africa.

              This study aims to provide trypanosomiasis-affected countries with standardized datasets and methodologies for mapping the habitat of the tsetse fly (Glossina spp., the disease vector) by customizing and integrating state-of-the-art land cover maps on different spatial scales. Using a combination of inductive and deductive approaches, land cover and fly distribution maps are analysed in a geographic information system (GIS) to estimate the suitability of different land cover units for the three groups (subgenera) of Glossina. All land cover datasets used for and produced by the study comply with the Land Cover Classification System (LCCS). At the continental scale, a strong correlation between land cover and tsetse habitat is found for both the fusca and palpalis groups, whereas a weaker correlation found for the morsitans group may be indicative of less restrictive ecological requirements. At the regional and national levels, thematic aggregation of the multi-purpose Africover datasets yielded high-resolution, standardized land cover maps tailored for tsetse habitat for eight East African countries. The national maps provide remarkable spatial resolution, thematic detail and geographical coverage. They may be applied in subsequent phases of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control projects, including the planning of entomological surveys, actual tsetse control operations and planning for land use in reclaimed areas. The methodology and datasets discussed in the paper may have applications beyond the tsetse and trypanosomiasis issue and may be used with reference to other arthropod vectors, vector-borne and parasitic diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Heliyon
                Heliyon
                Heliyon
                Elsevier
                2405-8440
                22 April 2021
                April 2021
                22 April 2021
                : 7
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [b ]Hawassa University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ethiopia
                [a ]MoLF, Wolaita Zone, Southern Region, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. mereba480@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S2405-8440(21)00770-2 e06667
                10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06667
                8095118
                © 2021 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Research Article

                ethiopia, glossina, loma, omo river, season, trypanosome

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