The results of a seasonal study of the regulation by steroids of ovine pineal β-adrenoceptors are reported. The effects of ovariectomy, steroid implants and superior cervical ganglionectomy were investigated in Merino ewes. The results confirm earlier observations showing a seasonal variation in the sensitivity of the receptors to modification by gonadal steroids. A marked difference in receptor density and affinity between the follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle is shown for the first time, a difference which can be modified by appropriate steroid-related treatments. A season-dependent antagonism between the sympathetic innervation of the gland (presumably acting via the neurotransmitter noradrenaline) and gonadal steroids in the regulation of ovine pineal β-adrenoceptor function is also shown.