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      Visual field defects and retinal nerve fiber imaging in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and in healthy controls

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          Abstract

          Background

          To assess the retinal sensitivity in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients evaluated with standard automated perimetry (SAP). And to correlate the functional SAP results with structural parameters obtained with optical coherence tomography (OCT).

          Methods

          This prospective, observational, case-control study consisted of 63 eyes of 63 OSAHS patients (mean age 51.7 ± 12.7 years, best corrected visual acuity ≥20/25, refractive error less than three spherical or two cylindrical diopters, and intraocular pressure < 21 mmHg) who were enrolled and compared with 38 eyes of 38 age-matched controls. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was measured by Stratus OCT and SAP sensitivities and indices were explored with Humphrey Field Analyzer perimeter. Correlations between functional and structural parameters were calculated, as well as the relationship between ophthalmologic and systemic indices in OSAHS patients.

          Results

          OSAHS patients showed a significant reduction of the sensitivity for superior visual field division ( p = 0.034, t-student test). When dividing the OSAHS group in accordance with the severity of the disease, nasal peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly lower in severe OSAHS than that in controls and mild-moderate cases ( p = 0.031 and p = 0.016 respectively, Mann-Whitney U test). There were no differences between groups for SAP parameters.

          We found no correlation between structural and functional variables. The central visual field sensitivity of the SAP revealed a poor Pearson correlation with the apnea-hipopnea index (0.284, p = 0.024).

          Conclusions

          Retinal sensitivity show minor differences between healthy subjects and OSAHS. Functional deterioration in OSAHS patients is not easy to demonstrate with visual field examination.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: cross-sectional results of the Sleep Heart Health Study.

          Disordered breathing during sleep is associated with acute, unfavorable effects on cardiovascular physiology, but few studies have examined its postulated association with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the cross-sectional association between sleep- disordered breathing and self-reported CVD in 6,424 free-living individuals who underwent overnight, unattended polysomnography at home. Sleep-disordered breathing was quantified by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)-the average number of apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep. Mild to moderate disordered breathing during sleep was highly prevalent in the sample (median AHI: 4.4; interquartile range: 1.3 to 11.0). A total of 1,023 participants (16%) reported at least one manifestation of CVD (myocardial infarction, angina, coronary revascularization procedure, heart failure, or stroke). The multivariable-adjusted relative odds (95% CI) of prevalent CVD for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of the AHI (versus the first) were 0.98 (0.77-1.24), 1.28 (1.02-1.61), and 1.42 (1.13-1.78), respectively. Sleep-disordered breathing was associated more strongly with self-reported heart failure and stroke than with self-reported coronary heart disease: the relative odds (95% CI) of heart failure, stroke, and coronary heart disease (upper versus lower AHI quartile) were 2.38 (1.22-4.62), 1.58 (1.02- 2.46), and 1.27 (0.99-1.62), respectively. These findings are compatible with modest to moderate effects of sleep-disordered breathing on heterogeneous manifestations of CVD within a range of AHI values that are considered normal or only mildly elevated.
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            Mapping the visual field to the optic disc in normal tension glaucoma eyes.

            To establish the anatomical relationship between visual field test points in the Humphrey 24-2 test pattern and regions of the optic nerve head (ONH) DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Glaucoma patients and suspects from the Normal Tension Glaucoma Clinic at Moorfields Eye Hospital. Sixty-nine retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) photographs with well-defined RNFL defects and/or prominent bundles were digitized. An appropriately scaled Humphrey 24-2 visual field grid and an ONH reference circle, divided into 30 degrees sectors, were generated digitally. These were superimposed onto the RNFL images. The relationship of visual field test points to the circumference of the ONH was estimated by noting the proximity of test points to RNFL defects and/or prominent bundles. The position of the ONH in relation to the fovea was also noted. The sector at the ONH corresponding to each visual field test point, the position of the ONH in relation to the fovea, and the effect of the latter on the former. A median 22 (range, 4-58), of a possible 69, ONH positions were assigned to each visual field test point. The standard deviation of estimations was 7.2 degrees. The position of the ONH was 15.5 degrees (standard deviation 0.9 degrees ) nasal and 1.9 degrees (standard deviation 1.0 degrees ) above the fovea. The location of the ONH had a significant effect on the corresponding position at the ONH for 28 of 52 visual field test points. A clinically useful map that relates visual field test points to regions of the ONH has been produced. The map will aid clinical evaluation of glaucoma patients and suspects, as well as form the basis for investigations of the relationship between retinal light sensitivity and ONH structure.
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              Determinants of normal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by Stratus OCT.

              To determine the effects of age, optic disc area, ethnicity, eye, gender, and axial length on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in the normal human eye as measured by Stratus OCT (optical coherence tomography). Cross-sectional observational study. Three hundred twenty-eight normal subjects 18 to 85 years old. Peripapillary Fast RNFL scans performed by Stratus OCT with a nominal diameter of 3.46 mm centered on the optic disc were performed on one randomly selected eye of each subject. Linear regression analysis of the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, eye, axial length, and optic disc area on peripapillary RNFL thickness. The mean RNFL thickness for the entire population was 100.1 microm (standard deviation, 11.6). Thinner RNFL measurements were associated with older age (P<0.001); being Caucasian, versus being either Hispanic or Asian (P = 0.006); greater axial length (P<0.001); or smaller optic disc area (P = 0.010). For every decade of increased age, mean RNFL thickness measured thinner by approximately 2.0 microm (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.8). For every 1-mm-greater axial length, mean RNFL thickness measured thinner by approximately 2.2 microm (95% CI, 1.1-3.4). For every increase in square millimeter of optic disc area, mean RNFL thickness increased by approximately 3.3 microm (95% CI, 0.6-5.6). Comparisons between ethnic groups revealed that Caucasians had mean RNFL values (98.1+/-10.9 microm) slightly thinner than those of Hispanics (103.7+/-11.6 microm; P = 0.022) or Asians (105.8+/-9.2 microm; P = 0.043). There was no relationship between RNFL thickness and eye or gender. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as measured by Stratus OCT, varies significantly with age, ethnicity, axial length, and optic disc area. These variables may need to be taken into account when evaluating patients for diagnosis and follow-up of glaucoma, particularly at the lower boundary of the normal range. Due to the relatively small numbers of subjects of Asian and African descent in the normative database, conclusions regarding the effect of ethnicity should be interpreted with caution.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                + 34 605327415 , paulacasaspascual@hotmail.com
                Journal
                BMC Ophthalmol
                BMC Ophthalmol
                BMC Ophthalmology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2415
                2 March 2018
                2 March 2018
                2018
                : 18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1767 4212, GRID grid.411050.1, Department of Ophthalmology, , Hospital Clínico Universitario “Lozano Blesa”, ; San Juan Bosco 15, ES-50009 Zaragoza, Spain
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9854 2756, GRID grid.411106.3, Department of Otolaryngology, , Hospital Universitario “Miguel Servet”, ; Zaragoza, Spain
                [3 ]ISNI 0000000463436020, GRID grid.488737.7, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), ; Zaragoza, Spain
                Article
                728
                10.1186/s12886-018-0728-z
                5833149
                29499674
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2018

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