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      Procedural sedation and analgesia in children.

      Lancet

      Practice Guidelines as Topic, standards, Pediatrics, Infant, pharmacology, classification, administration & dosage, Hypnotics and Sedatives, Humans, Health Status, Conscious Sedation, Child, Preschool, Child, Analgesics, Analgesia

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          Abstract

          Procedural sedation and analgesia for children--the use of sedative, analgesic, or dissociative drugs to relieve anxiety and pain associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures--is now widely practised by a diverse group of specialists outside the operating theatre. We review the principles underlying safe and effective procedural sedation and analgesia and the spectrum of procedures for which it is currently done. We discuss the decision-making process used to determine appropriate drug selection, dosing, and sedation endpoint. We detail the pharmacopoeia for procedural sedation and analgesia, reviewing the pharmacology and adverse effects of these drugs. International differences in practice are described along with current areas of controversy and future directions.

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          Journal
          10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68230-5
          16517277

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