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      Efficacy and dosimetry analysis of image-guided radioactive 125I seed implantation as salvage treatment for pelvic recurrent cervical cancer after external beam radiotherapy

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          To investigate the efficacy of image-guided radioactive 125I seed (IGRIS) implantation for pelvic recurrent cervical cancer (PRCC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and analyze the influence of clinical and dosimetric factors on efficacy.


          From July 2005 to October 2015, 36 patients with PRCC received IGRIS. We evaluated local progression-free survival (LPFS) and overall survival (OS).


          The median follow up was 11.5 months. The 1- and 2-year LPFS rate was 34.9% and 20%, respectively. The multivariate analysis indicated recurrence site (central or pelvic wall) (hazard ratio [HR]=0.294; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.121–0.718), lesion volume (HR=2.898; 95% CI=1.139–7.372), D 90 (HR=0.332; 95% CI=0.130–0.850) were the independent factors affecting LPFS. The 1- and 2-year OS rate was 52.0% and 19.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis suggested pathological type (HR=9.713; 95% CI=2.136–44.176) and recurrence site (HR=0.358; 95% CI=0.136–0.940) were the independent factors affecting OS. The dosimetric parameters of 33 patients mainly included D 90 (128.5±47.4 Gy), D 100 (50.4±23.7 Gy) and V 100 (86.7%±12.9%). When D 90 ≥105 Gy or D 100 ≥55 Gy or V 100 ≥91%, LPFS was extended significantly, but no significant difference for OS. The 79.2% of 24 patients with local pain were suffering from pain downgraded after radioactive 125I seed implantation.


          IGRIS implantation could be a safe and effective salvage treatment for PRCC after EBRT, which could markedly release the pain. Recurrence site, tumor volume and dose were the main factors affected efficacy. Compared with central recurrence, it was more suitable for patients with pelvic wall recurrent cervical cancer after EBRT.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes angiogenesis, a mediator of disease progression in cervical cancer. Bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, has single-agent activity in previously treated, recurrent disease. Most patients in whom recurrent cervical cancer develops have previously received cisplatin with radiation therapy, which reduces the effectiveness of cisplatin at the time of recurrence. We evaluated the effectiveness of bevacizumab and nonplatinum combination chemotherapy in patients with recurrent, persistent, or metastatic cervical cancer. Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 452 patients to chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab at a dose of 15 mg per kilogram of body weight. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin at a dose of 50 mg per square meter of body-surface area, plus paclitaxel at a dose of 135 or 175 mg per square meter or topotecan at a dose of 0.75 mg per square meter on days 1 to 3, plus paclitaxel at a dose of 175 mg per square meter on day 1. Cycles were repeated every 21 days until disease progression, the development of unacceptable toxic effects, or a complete response was documented. The primary end point was overall survival; a reduction of 30% in the hazard ratio for death was considered clinically important. Groups were well balanced with respect to age, histologic findings, performance status, previous use or nonuse of a radiosensitizing platinum agent, and disease status. Topotecan-paclitaxel was not superior to cisplatin-paclitaxel (hazard ratio for death, 1.20). With the data for the two chemotherapy regimens combined, the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy was associated with increased overall survival (17.0 months vs. 13.3 months; hazard ratio for death, 0.71; 98% confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.95; P=0.004 in a one-sided test) and higher response rates (48% vs. 36%, P=0.008). Bevacizumab, as compared with chemotherapy alone, was associated with an increased incidence of hypertension of grade 2 or higher (25% vs. 2%), thromboembolic events of grade 3 or higher (8% vs. 1%), and gastrointestinal fistulas of grade 3 or higher (3% vs. 0%). The addition of bevacizumab to combination chemotherapy in patients with recurrent, persistent, or metastatic cervical cancer was associated with an improvement of 3.7 months in median overall survival. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute; GOG 240 number, NCT00803062.).
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              The aim of this narrative review is to update the current knowledge on the treatment of recurrent cervical cancer based on a literature review. A web based search in Medline and CancerLit databases has been carried out on recurrent cervical cancer management and treatment. All relevant information has been collected and analyzed, prioritizing randomized clinical trials. Cervical cancer still represents a significant problem for public health with an annual incidence of about half a million new cases worldwide. Percentages of pelvic recurrences fluctuate from 10% to 74% depending on different risk factors. Accordingly to the literature, it is suggested that chemoradiation treatment (containing cisplatin and/or taxanes) could represent the treatment of choice for locoregional recurrences of cervical cancer after radical surgery. Pelvic exenteration is usually indicated for selected cases of central recurrence of cervical cancer after primary or adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy with bladder and/or rectum infiltration neither extended to the pelvic side walls nor showing any signs of extrapelvic spread of disease. Laterally extended endopelvic resection (LEER) for the treatment of those patients with a locally advanced disease or with a recurrence affecting the pelvic wall has been described. The treatment of recurrences of cervical carcinoma consists of surgery, and of radiation and chemotherapy, or the combination of different modalities taking into consideration the type of primary therapy, the site of recurrence, the disease-free interval, the patient symptoms, performance status, and the degree to which any given treatment might be beneficial. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                J Gynecol Oncol
                J Gynecol Oncol
                Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
                Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology; Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology
                January 2019
                30 October 2018
                : 30
                : 1
                Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Junjie Wang. Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuan North Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China. junjiewang_edu@
                Copyright © 2019. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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