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      Impact of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome on Immunity

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      Advances in Nutrition
      American Society for Nutrition

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          Abstract

          Obesity is associated with metabolic disturbances that cause tissue stress and dysfunction. Obese individuals are at a greater risk for chronic disease and often present with clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin resistance, and systemic markers of chronic low-grade inflammation. It has been well established that cells of the immune system play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity- and MetS-related chronic diseases, as evidenced by leukocyte activation and dysfunction in metabolic tissues such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, and the vasculature. However, recent findings have highlighted the substantial impact that obesity and MetS parameters have on immunity and pathogen defense, including the disruption of lymphoid tissue integrity; alterations in leukocyte development, phenotypes, and activity; and the coordination of innate and adaptive immune responses. These changes are associated with an overall negative impact on chronic disease progression, immunity from infection, and vaccine efficacy. This review presents an overview of the impact that obesity and MetS parameters have on immune system function.

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          Immunity, inflammation, and cancer.

          Inflammatory responses play decisive roles at different stages of tumor development, including initiation, promotion, malignant conversion, invasion, and metastasis. Inflammation also affects immune surveillance and responses to therapy. Immune cells that infiltrate tumors engage in an extensive and dynamic crosstalk with cancer cells, and some of the molecular events that mediate this dialog have been revealed. This review outlines the principal mechanisms that govern the effects of inflammation and immunity on tumor development and discusses attractive new targets for cancer therapy and prevention. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Origin and physiological roles of inflammation.

            Inflammation underlies a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. Although the pathological aspects of many types of inflammation are well appreciated, their physiological functions are mostly unknown. The classic instigators of inflammation - infection and tissue injury - are at one end of a large range of adverse conditions that induce inflammation, and they trigger the recruitment of leukocytes and plasma proteins to the affected tissue site. Tissue stress or malfunction similarly induces an adaptive response, which is referred to here as para-inflammation. This response relies mainly on tissue-resident macrophages and is intermediate between the basal homeostatic state and a classic inflammatory response. Para-inflammation is probably responsible for the chronic inflammatory conditions that are associated with modern human diseases.
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              Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advances in Nutrition
                American Society for Nutrition
                2156-5376
                2161-8313
                January 2016
                January 07 2016
                January 01 2016
                January 2016
                January 07 2016
                January 01 2016
                : 7
                : 1
                : 66-75
                Article
                10.3945/an.115.010207
                4717890
                26773015
                f57ca570-abe5-47c5-97d4-f2aa873814dd
                © 2016
                History

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