28 August 2020
bullous central serous chorioretinopathy, chronic central serous chorioretinopathy, exudative retinal detachment, argon laser photocoagulation, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, transpupillary thermal therapy, pachychoroid, scleral thinning surgery
Bullous central serous chorioretinopathy (bCSCR) is a rare variant of the central serous chorioretinopathy, complicated by an exudative retinal detachment with shifting fluid. This systematic review aims to present the epidemiology, the pathogenesis, the clinical presentation, the imaging, the differential diagnosis, and the latest treatments of this disease. A total of 60 studies were identified following a literature search adhering to PRISMA guidelines. After full-text evaluation, 34 studies about bCSCR were included. bCSCR usually affects middle-aged men, and the principal risk factor is corticosteroid medications. Pathogenesis is related to an increased choroidal vessel and choriocapillaris permeability, with subsequent subretinal fluid accumulation, rich in fibrin, which may provoke the exudative retinal detachment. Clinical presentation and imaging are fundamental to distinguish bCSCR from other pathologies, avoiding unappropriated treatment. Corticosteroid withdraws (if assumed) and laser photocoagulation of leakage sites seen at angiography may speed up retinal reattachment. Verteporfin photodynamic therapy, transpupillary thermal therapy, oral eplerenone and scleral thinning surgery are other therapeutic options. An early diagnosis might prevent disease progression due to harmful medications as well as unnecessary surgery.