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      Harnessing innate immunity in cancer therapy

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          Abstract

          New therapies that promote antitumour immunity have been recently developed. Most of these immunomodulatory approaches have focused on enhancing T-cell responses, either by targeting inhibitory pathways with immune checkpoint inhibitors, or by targeting activating pathways, as with chimeric antigen receptor T cells or bispecific antibodies. Although these therapies have led to unprecedented successes, only a minority of patients with cancer benefit from these treatments, highlighting the need to identify new cells and molecules that could be exploited in the next generation of immunotherapy. Given the crucial role of innate immune responses in immunity, harnessing these responses opens up new possibilities for long-lasting, multilayered tumour control.

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          Batf3 deficiency reveals a critical role for CD8alpha+ dendritic cells in cytotoxic T cell immunity.

          Although in vitro observations suggest that cross-presentation of antigens is mediated primarily by CD8alpha+ dendritic cells, in vivo analysis has been hampered by the lack of systems that selectively eliminate this cell lineage. We show that deletion of the transcription factor Batf3 ablated development of CD8alpha+ dendritic cells, allowing us to examine their role in immunity in vivo. Dendritic cells from Batf3-/- mice were defective in cross-presentation, and Batf3-/- mice lacked virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses to West Nile virus. Importantly, rejection of highly immunogenic syngeneic tumors was impaired in Batf3-/- mice. These results suggest an important role for CD8alpha+ dendritic cells and cross-presentation in responses to viruses and in tumor rejection.
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            NK Cells Stimulate Recruitment of cDC1 into the Tumor Microenvironment Promoting Cancer Immune Control

            Summary Conventional type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1) are critical for antitumor immunity, and their abundance within tumors is associated with immune-mediated rejection and the success of immunotherapy. Here, we show that cDC1 accumulation in mouse tumors often depends on natural killer (NK) cells that produce the cDC1 chemoattractants CCL5 and XCL1. Similarly, in human cancers, intratumoral CCL5, XCL1, and XCL2 transcripts closely correlate with gene signatures of both NK cells and cDC1 and are associated with increased overall patient survival. Notably, tumor production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) leads to evasion of the NK cell-cDC1 axis in part by impairing NK cell viability and chemokine production, as well as by causing downregulation of chemokine receptor expression in cDC1. Our findings reveal a cellular and molecular checkpoint for intratumoral cDC1 recruitment that is targeted by tumor-derived PGE2 for immune evasion and that could be exploited for cancer therapy.
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              STING-dependent cytosolic DNA sensing mediates innate immune recognition of immunogenic tumors.

              Spontaneous T cell responses against tumors occur frequently and have prognostic value in patients. The mechanism of innate immune sensing of immunogenic tumors leading to adaptive T cell responses remains undefined, although type I interferons (IFNs) are implicated in this process. We found that spontaneous CD8(+) T cell priming against tumors was defective in mice lacking stimulator of interferon genes complex (STING), but not other innate signaling pathways, suggesting involvement of a cytosolic DNA sensing pathway. In vitro, IFN-? production and dendritic cell activation were triggered by tumor-cell-derived DNA, via cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), STING, and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). In the tumor microenvironment in vivo, tumor cell DNA was detected within host antigen-presenting cells, which correlated with STING pathway activation and IFN-? production. Our results demonstrate that a major mechanism for innate immune sensing of cancer occurs via the host STING pathway, with major implications for cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                October 2019
                October 2 2019
                October 2019
                : 574
                : 7776
                : 45-56
                Article
                10.1038/s41586-019-1593-5
                31578484
                f5951d97-cb39-4e32-bce3-000e7be46baa
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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