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      A Strategy for Screening the Lipid-Lowering Components in Alismatis Rhizoma Decoction Based on Spectrum-Effect Analysis

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          Abstract

          Alismatis Rhizoma decoction (ARD), comprised of Alisma plantago-aquatica subsp. orientale (Sam.) Sam and Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. at a ratio of 5 : 2, is a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula with successful clinical hypolipidemic effect. This paper aimed to explore the major bioactive compounds and potential mechanism of ARD in the treatment of hyperlipidemia on the basis of spectrum-effect analysis and molecular docking. Nine ARD samples with varying ratios of the constituent herbs were prepared and analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS to obtain the chemical spectra. Then, the lipid-lowering ability of the nine samples was tested in an oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation model in human hepatoma cells (HepG 2). Grey relational analysis and partial least squares regression analysis were then performed to determine the correlation between the chemical spectrums and lipid-lowering efficacies of ARD. The potential mechanisms of the effective compounds were investigated by docking with the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protein. The results indicated that alisol B 23-acetate, alisol C 23-acetate, and alisol B appeared to be the core effective components on hyperlipidemia in ARD. Molecular docking further demonstrated that all three compounds could bind to FXR and were potential FXR agonists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. This study elucidated the effective components and potential molecular mechanism of action of ARD for treating hyperlipidemia from a perspective of different compatibility, providing a new and feasible reference for the research of TCM formulas such as ARD.

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          Most cited references51

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          The Farnesoid X receptor: a molecular link between bile acid and lipid and glucose metabolism.

          Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol metabolism. They are synthesized in the liver and secreted via bile into the intestine, where they aid in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and dietary fat. Subsequently, bile acids return to the liver to complete their enterohepatic circulation. The Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and has emerged as a key player in the control of multiple metabolic pathways. On its activation by bile acids, FXR regulates bile acid synthesis, conjugation, and transport, as well as various aspects of lipid and glucose metabolism. This review summarizes recent advances in deciphering the role of FXR in the context of hepatic lipid and glucose homeostasis and discusses the potential of FXR as a pharmacological target for therapeutic applications.
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            Activation of the nuclear receptor FXR improves hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in diabetic mice.

            Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in maintaining bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that FXR also regulates glucose metabolism. Activation of FXR by the synthetic agonist GW4064 or hepatic overexpression of constitutively active FXR by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer significantly lowered blood glucose levels in both diabetic db/db and wild-type mice. Consistent with these data, FXR null mice exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. We further demonstrate that activation of FXR in db/db mice repressed hepatic gluconeogenic genes and increased hepatic glycogen synthesis and glycogen content by a mechanism that involves enhanced insulin sensitivity. In view of its central roles in coordinating regulation of both glucose and lipid metabolism, we propose that FXR agonists are promising therapeutic agents for treatment of diabetes mellitus.
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              The traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.: A review

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Anal Methods Chem
                J Anal Methods Chem
                jamc
                Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
                Hindawi
                2090-8865
                2090-8873
                2022
                4 January 2022
                : 2022
                : 2363242
                Affiliations
                1Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China
                2Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017, China
                3Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Idaira Pacheco-Fernández

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9767-2302
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1692-4729
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3821-1589
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9025-5378
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7126-472X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9992-454X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2996-4490
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8789-0311
                Article
                10.1155/2022/2363242
                8752264
                35028165
                f595cc0b-40e3-4847-9e63-2a896c1647eb
                Copyright © 2022 Xiao-Yan Chang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 1 August 2021
                : 15 December 2021
                : 22 December 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences
                Award ID: 2016-I2M-1-012
                Categories
                Research Article

                Analytical chemistry
                Analytical chemistry

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