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      Transfer of electrons on scratched iron surfaces: Photoelectron emission and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies


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          We report the activation energy, Δ E a, for the quantum yield in thermally assisted photoelectron emission (TAPE) under 210-nm-wavelength light irradiation, and the associated X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results. Samples were cleaned only in acetone and scratched in air, water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, and cyclohexane. Glow curves, describing the temperature dependence of photoelectron emission (PE) quantum yield (emitted electrons/photon), Y, were obtained. A simple method of determining Δ E a using Y, called Y GC, at seven temperatures up to 353  °C, for the same Y glow curve, was proposed. The Δ E a obtained using this method was almost the same as that obtained from Y for seven stationary temperatures ( Y ST). For scratched samples, the TAPE was measured over two cycles of temperature increase and subsequent decrease (Up1, Down1 and Up2, Down2 scans) in the 25–339  °C range, and Δ E a was obtained from Y GC. The Arrhenius plot was approximated by a straight line, although a convex swelling peak appeared in the Up1 scan. Δ E aUp1 was in the 0.212–0.035 eV range, depending on the environment in which scratching was performed; Δ E aUp1 for water was much higher than that for acetone. This was explained in terms of the mode of the acid–base interaction between the liquid molecules and the hydroxyl group of Fe–OH. The values of Δ E aDown1, Δ E aUp2, and Δ E aDown2 were in the 0.038–0.012 eV range. The total count of electrons emitted during the Up1 and Up2 scans was found to decrease with increasing Δ E aUp1 and Δ E aUp2, respectively. Δ E aUp2 was found to increase with increasing presence of the FeO component in the analyzed Fe oxides. The convex swelling peak was attributed to the removal of carbon materials from the scratched surface and the effect of the increased electron density of the surface hydroxyl group of FeOH under the light irradiation.

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              Peak shape analysis of core level photoelectron spectra using UNIFIT for WINDOWS


                Author and article information

                Tsinghua Science and Technology
                Tsinghua University Press (Xueyuan Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China )
                05 March 2018
                : 06
                : 01
                : 98-115 (pp. )
                [ 1 ] Department of Materials Science, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi 316-8511, Japan
                [ 2 ] Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Ashikaga 326-8558, Japan
                [ 3 ] Institute of Mesotechnology, 2-2-1-201 Nakahara, Kashiwa 277-0085, Japan
                Author notes
                * Corresponding author: Yoshihiro MOMOSE, E-mail: y.momose@ 123456cpost.plala.or.jp

                Yoshihiro MOMOSE. He is a professor emeritus of Ibaraki University, Japan. He received his bachelor and master degrees in chemistry in 1963 and 1965, respectively, from Tohoku University, Japan. He joined the faculty of Chemical Research Institute of Non-aqueous Solutions, Tohoku University. He earned his PhD degree in 1970 from Tohoku University. After that he worked in the Department of Engineering Chemistry and Materials Science at Ibaraki University as an associate professor and then a professor from 1970 to 2006. His main research interest focuses on the transfer of charge and electrons on the real surfaces in the fields such as tribochemistry, adhesion, and corrosion.

                Takao SAKURAI. He received his M.S. and PhD degrees in applied physics from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, in 1969 and 1973, respectively. His current position is an emeritus professor of Ashikaga Institute of Technology. His research interests include curve analyses in the field of thermally stimulated relaxation processes.

                Keiji NAKAYAMA. He is the president of the Institute of Mesotechnology, Japan. He received his master and PhD degrees in chemical engineering from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, in 1971 and 1974, respectively. He joined to the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory (MEL), AIST, MITI, Japan in 1974. After studying in the field of tribology as a researcher, a senior researcher, and the head of division in MEL, he worked as a professor in the Advanced Research Institute, Chiba Institute of Technology, Japan from 2008 to 2014. He is in the current position since 2014. His main research interest focuses on the basic and application studies of the triboelectromagnetic phenomena, which embrace triboplasma generation, triboemission of charged particles and photons, and tribocharging.


                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Page count
                Figures: 15, Tables: 2, References: 17, Pages: 18
                Research Article

                Materials technology,Materials properties,Thin films & surfaces,Mechanical engineering
                thermally assisted photoelectron emission,XPS,scratch-inducing environment,Arrhenius activation energy,environment molecule-surface hydroxyl group interaction,real iron


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