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      Amphotericin B combined with itraconazole or fluconazole for treatment of histoplasmosis.

      The Journal of Infectious Diseases

      Amphotericin B, therapeutic use, Animals, Drug Interactions, Drug Therapy, Combination, Female, Fluconazole, Histoplasmosis, drug therapy, Itraconazole, Mice, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, standards

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          Abstract

          To investigate the efficacy of combined treatment with fluconazole (Flu) and amphotericin B (AmB) for Histoplasma capsulatum meningitis, MICs were determined for 10 clinical isolates, following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. Weak synergy was observed for 6 of the 10 isolates. For the in vivo models, mice either were sham treated or were given Flu (75 mg/kg/day), AmB (2 mg/kg every other day), itraconazole (Itra; 75 mg/kg/day), AmB+Flu, or AmB+Itra. Following infection with 5x105 yeasts, Flu antagonized AmB's reduction of fungal burden without reducing its effect on survival. When in vivo antagonism was reproduced following infection with 1x104 yeasts, a higher fungal burden was observed in the lungs. Itra had no effect on AmB's activity and was more effective than Flu for clearance of fungal burden. These findings caution against use of AmB+Flu for treatment of histoplasmosis, but studies of the effect of treatment on the fungal burden in the brain are needed to assess combination therapy for meningitis.

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          Journal
          10915087
          10.1086/315717

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