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      Intake and digestibility in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogenous compounds Translated title: Consumo e digestibilidade em bovinos alimentados com forragem tropical de baixa qualidade e suplementados com compostos nitrogenados

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          Abstract

          The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with nitrogenous compounds on intake, digestibility, and rumen microbial synthesis in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage. Five crossbred heifers, averaging 209 kg and fitted with ruminal fistulla, were used. The animals were fed ad libitum with signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) hay, which had crude protein (CP) content of 5.08%, as dry matter (DM) basis. The five treatments were defined according to the increasing level of CP in the diet (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 percentile points above the forage CP level). The supplement consisted of the following nitrogen sources: urea, ammonium sulfate and albumin (4.5:0.5:1.0, respectively). The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five experimental periods. The average CP levels in the diets were: 5.28, 8.08, 9.82, 11.87, and 13.63% on DM basis. The intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) showed a quadratic response according to CP levels in the diet, with maximum responses at 10.83%, 10.78%, and 10.37% CP, respectively. The digestibility coefficients of OM and NDF showed a linear-response-plateau response according to CP levels, with the plateau beginning (maximum response) at 7.93% and 7.55% CP, respectively. The average daily concentration of rumen ammonia nitrogen (RAN) was positively related with CP levels. The RAN estimate associated with the maximum DM intake was 15.33 mg/dL. It was observed that intestinal flow of microbial nitrogenous compounds and nitrogen intake became equivalent to each other at 7.13% of CP.

          Translated abstract

          Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de compostos nitrogenados suplementares sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade e a síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com forragem tropical de baixa qualidade. Foram utilizadas cinco novilhas mestiças Holandês × Zebu, com peso vivo médio de 209 kg, fistuladas no rúmen. O volumoso consistiu de feno de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) (5,08% de proteína bruta (PB), com base na matéria seca), fornecido à vontade. Os cinco tratamentos avaliados foram definidos de acordo com o nível de suplementação proteica (0, 3, 5, 7 e 9 pontos percentuais acima do nível de PB da forragem). Como fonte de compostos nitrogenados, empregou-se mistura de ureia, sulfato de amônia e albumina, nas proporções de 4,5:0,5:1,0, respectivamente. O experimento constou de cinco períodos experimentais, segundo delineamento em quadrado latino 5 × 5. Os níveis médios de PB observados nas dietas foram de 5,28; 8,08; 9,82; 11,87 e 13,63%, com base na matéria seca (MS). Verificou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de PB na dieta sobre os consumos de MS, matéria orgânica (MO) e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) (kg/dia), com respostas máximas nos níveis de 10,83%, 10,78% e 10,37% de PB, respectivamente. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da MO e FDN apresentaram relação do tipo linear-response-plateau com os níveis de PB na dieta com início de platô (resposta máxima) em 7,93 e 7,55% de PB, respectivamente. A concentração média diária de nitrogênio amoniacal ruminal apresentou comportamento linear crescente em função dos níveis de PB da dieta, com valor estimado de 15,33 mg/dL, equivalente ao máximo consumo de MS. A avaliação da relação entre consumo de nitrogênio e fluxo intestinal de nitrogênio microbiano indica que as estimativas dessas variáveis tornam-se equivalentes no nível de 7,13% de PB na dieta.

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          Most cited references34

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          Gravimetric determination of amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber in feeds with refluxing in beakers or crucibles: collaborative study.

          As an important constituent of animal feeds, fiber represents the portion of feeds that is bulky and difficult to digest. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) method, developed over 30 years ago, is the method of choice for measuring total fiber in forages and other feeds. Several modifications that were made to improve its general applicability to all feeds and others developed in individual laboratories often resulted in variability among laboratories in measuring NDF. The amylase-treated NDF (aNDF) method, therefore, was developed as an accurate and precise method of measuring total insoluble fiber in feeds. A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of the aNDF method over the full range of animal feed materials. Twelve laboratories representing research, feed company, regulatory, and commercial feed testing laboratories analyzed 11 materials as blind duplicates. The materials represented feed matrixes, including animal products; high-protein, high-fat, and high-pectin feeds; oil seeds; grains; heated by-product feeds; and legume and grass hays and silages. Materials selected varied in chemical composition and contained 0-90% aNDF, 1-16% ash, 1-20% crude fat, 1-40% crude protein, and 0-50% starch. Correcting results for changes in blanks and reporting results as ash-free aNDF organic matter (aNDFom) improved the repeatability and reproducibility of results when aNDF was 10% fat. However, standard deviations of repeatability and reproducibility for feeds with >10% fat were similar to those of other materials. It is recommended that the aNDF method be accepted for Official First Action status.
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            Chemical factors involved in ruminal fiber digestion.

            W Hoover (1986)
            In the United States, cattle are commonly fed diets containing cereal grains. The presence of starch and sugars reduces fiber digestion, which may in turn depress intake. In this paper, chemical constraints that may be responsible for the decrease in fiber digestion are explored. A major factor appears to be rumen pH. Moderate depression in pH, to approximately 6.0, results in a small decrease in fiber digestion, but numbers of fibrolytic organisms are usually not affected. Further decreases to 5.5 or 5.0 result in depressed growth rates and decreased fibrolytic microbes, and fiber digestion may be completely inhibited. Proliferation of organisms on readily fermentable carbohydrates may increase the need for total nitrogen as both ammonia and amino acids. The value of amino acids to cellulolytic organisms appears to be primarily as sources of isobutyric, isovaleric, and 2-methylbutyric acids. This reinforces the need to establish dietary requirements for nonprotein nitrogen, degradable protein, and isoacids. Other factors affecting fiber digestion, such as inhibition of cellulytic enzymes and plant concentrations of lignins and phenyl propanoids, are also discussed.
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              Factors affecting the utilization of 'poor-quality' forages by ruminants particularly under tropical conditions.

              R A Leng (1989)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbz
                Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia
                R. Bras. Zootec.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia (Viçosa )
                1806-9290
                October 2009
                : 38
                : 10
                : 2021-2030
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de Viçosa Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal de Viçosa Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade Federal de Viçosa Brazil
                [4 ] Universidade Federal de Viçosa Brazil
                Article
                S1516-35982009001000024
                10.1590/S1516-35982009001000024
                f5aa64b7-9f84-4f27-81ed-1c26fa4a7c39
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                AGRICULTURE, DAIRY & ANIMAL SCIENCE
                VETERINARY SCIENCES

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