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      Avaliação da produção de procedimentos da linha de cuidado do câncer do colo do útero no Sistema Único de Saúde do Brasil em 2015 Translated title: Evaluación de la producción de procedimientos de la línea de cuidado del cáncer del cuello uterino en el Sistema Único de Salud, en las regiones de Brasil, 2015 Translated title: Assessment of the production of cervical cancer care procedures in the Brazilian National Health System in 2015

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          Abstract

          Resumo Objetivo: avaliar a produção de procedimentos de rastreamento, investigação diagnóstica e tratamento de lesões precursoras do câncer do colo do útero no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Métodos: avaliação normativa com cálculo das estimativas de necessidade baseadas nas diretrizes nacionais para rastreamento, em dois cenários: rastreamento organizado (1) e oportunístico (2); utilizou-se dados do Sistema de Informações Ambulatoriais do SUS e do Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo do Útero para 2015. Resultados: considerando-se o cenário 1, a produção de exames citopatológicos (-46,9%) e biópsias (-44,9%) foi inferior ao necessário no Brasil, enquanto a de colposcopias (61,3%) e tratamento de lesões precursoras (37,4%) foi superior; no cenário 2, a produção de biópsias foi inferior ao necessário (-48,5%), enquanto a de colposcopias (193,9%) e tratamento de lesões precursoras (28,4%) foi superior. Conclusão: identificou-se deficit de exames citopatológicos e biópsias, excesso de colposcopias e de tratamento de lesões precursoras no Brasil.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen Objetivo: evaluar la producción de los procedimientos de tamizaje, investigación diagnóstica y tratamiento de lesiones precursoras de cáncer de cuello uterino en el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) de Brasil. Métodos: evaluación normativa; se estimaron para 2015 necesidades basadas en las directrices nacionales para el tamizaje en dos escenarios - tamizaje masivo (1) y oportunista (2) -; se utilizaron datos de los Sistemas de Información del SUS. Resultados: considerando el escenario 1, la producción de exámenes citopatológicos (-46,9%) y biopsias (-44,9%) fue inferior a lo necesario en Brasil, mientras que la de colposcopias (61,3%) y tratamiento de lesiones precursoras (37,4%) fueron superiores; en el escenario 2, la producción de biopsias fue inferior a lo necesario (-48,5%), mientras que la de colposcopias (193,9%) y tratamiento de lesiones precursoras (28,4%) fue superior. Conclusión: se identificó déficit de exámenes citopatológicos y biopsias y exceso de colposcopias y tratamiento de lesiones precursoras en Brasil.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Objective: to assess the procedures production of screening, diagnostic investigation and precursor lesions treatment for cervical cancer in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). Methods: normative evaluation with calculation of estimates of need based on national screening guidelines in two scenarios: organized (1) and opportunistic (2) screening; data were obtained from the SUS Ambulatory Care Information System and the Cervical Cancer Information System. Results: considering the scenario 1, the production of cytopathologic exams (-46,9%) and biopsies (-44.9%) was below the necessary in Brazil, whereas colposcopy (61.3%) and precursor lesions treatments (37.4%) were above; in scenario 2, biopsies were below the necessary (-48.5%) whilst colposcopy (193.9%) and precursor lesions treatments (28.4%) were above. Conclusion: there were deficits in cytopathologic exams and biopsies and excess of colposcopies and treatment of precursor lesions in Brazil.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 major cancers and for all cancers combined for 2012 are now available in the GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We review the sources and methods used in compiling the national cancer incidence and mortality estimates, and briefly describe the key results by cancer site and in 20 large "areas" of the world. Overall, there were 14.1 million new cases and 8.2 million deaths in 2012. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (1.82 million), breast (1.67 million), and colorectal (1.36 million); the most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (1.6 million deaths), liver cancer (745,000 deaths), and stomach cancer (723,000 deaths). © 2014 UICC.
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            Global cancer transitions according to the Human Development Index (2008-2030): a population-based study.

            Cancer is set to become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the coming decades in every region of the world. We aimed to assess the changing patterns of cancer according to varying levels of human development. We used four levels (low, medium, high, and very high) of the Human Development Index (HDI), a composite indicator of life expectancy, education, and gross domestic product per head, to highlight cancer-specific patterns in 2008 (on the basis of GLOBOCAN estimates) and trends 1988-2002 (on the basis of the series in Cancer Incidence in Five Continents), and to produce future burden scenario for 2030 according to projected demographic changes alone and trends-based changes for selected cancer sites. In the highest HDI regions in 2008, cancers of the female breast, lung, colorectum, and prostate accounted for half the overall cancer burden, whereas in medium HDI regions, cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, and liver were also common, and together these seven cancers comprised 62% of the total cancer burden in medium to very high HDI areas. In low HDI regions, cervical cancer was more common than both breast cancer and liver cancer. Nine different cancers were the most commonly diagnosed in men across 184 countries, with cancers of the prostate, lung, and liver being the most common. Breast and cervical cancers were the most common in women. In medium HDI and high HDI settings, decreases in cervical and stomach cancer incidence seem to be offset by increases in the incidence of cancers of the female breast, prostate, and colorectum. If the cancer-specific and sex-specific trends estimated in this study continue, we predict an increase in the incidence of all-cancer cases from 12·7 million new cases in 2008 to 22·2 million by 2030. Our findings suggest that rapid societal and economic transition in many countries means that any reductions in infection-related cancers are offset by an increasing number of new cases that are more associated with reproductive, dietary, and hormonal factors. Targeted interventions can lead to a decrease in the projected increases in cancer burden through effective primary prevention strategies, alongside the implementation of vaccination, early detection, and effective treatment programmes. None. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Worldwide trends in cervical cancer incidence: impact of screening against changes in disease risk factors.

              Cervical cancer trends in a given country mainly depend on the existence of effective screening programmes and time changes in disease risk factors, notably exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV). Screening primarily influences variations by period of diagnosis, whereas changes in risk factors chiefly manifest themselves as variations in risk across successive birth cohorts of women. We assessed trends in cervical cancer across 38 countries in five continents, age group 30-74 years, using age-standardised incidence rates (ASRs) and age-period-cohort (APC) models. Non-identifiability in APC models was circumvented by making assumptions based on a consistent relationship between age and cervical cancer incidence (i.e. approximately constant rates after age 45 years). ASRs decreased in several countries, except in most of Eastern European populations, Thailand as well as Uganda, although the direction and magnitude of period and birth cohort effects varied substantially. Strong downward trends in cervical cancer risk by period were found in the highest-income countries, whereas no clear changes by period were found in lower-resourced settings. Successive generations of women born after 1940 or 1950 exhibited either an increase in risk of cervical cancer (in most European countries, Japan, China), no substantial changes (North America and Australia) or a decrease (Ecuador and India). In countries where effective screening has been in place for a long time the consequences of underlying increases in cohort-specific risk were largely avoided. In the absence of screening, cohort-led increases or, stable, cervical cancer ASRs were observed. Our study underscores the importance of strengthening screening efforts and augmenting existing cancer control efforts with HPV vaccination, notably in those countries where unfavourable cohort effects are continuing or emerging. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                ress
                Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde
                Epidemiol. Serv. Saúde
                Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde - Ministério da Saúde do Brasil (Brasília, DF, Brazil )
                1679-4974
                2237-9622
                February 2018
                : 27
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Rio de Janeiro RJ orgnameInstituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva orgdiv1Divisão de Detecção Precoce e Apoio à Organização de Rede Brasil
                Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro orgnameUniversidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro orgdiv1Instituto de Medicina Social Brazil
                Article
                S2237-96222018000100304
                10.5123/s1679-49742018000100004

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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