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      Effects of silicon on osteoclast cell mediated degradation, in vivo osteogenesis and vasculogenesis of brushite cement

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          Abstract

          Si-doped brushite cements (Si-BrCs) enhance new bone and blood vessel formation in vivo.

          Abstract

          Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are being widely used for treating small scale bone defects. Among the various CPCs, brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD) cement is widely used due to its superior solubility and ability to form a new bone. In the present study, we have studied the physical, mechanical, osteoclast-like-cell differentiation and in vivo osteogenic and vasculogenic properties of silicon (Si) doped brushite cements. The addition of Si did not alter the phase composition of the final product and regardless of the Si level, all samples included β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and DCPD. 1.1 wt% Si addition increased the compressive strength of undoped brushite cement from 4.78 ± 0.21 MPa to 5.53 ± 0.53 MPa, significantly. Cellular activity was studied using a receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) supplemented osteoclast-like-cell precursor RAW 264.7 cells. Phenotypic expressions of the cells confirmed successful differentiation of RAW 264.7 monocytes to osteoclast-like-cells on undoped and doped brushite cements. An increased activity of osteoclast-like cells was noticed due to Si doping in the brushite cement. An excellent new bone formation was found in all cement compositions, with significant increase in Si doped brushite samples as early as 4 weeks post implantation in a rat femoral model. After 4 weeks of implantation, no significant difference was found in blood vessel formation between the undoped and doped cements, however, a significant increase in vasculogenesis was found in 0.8 and 1.1 wt% Si doped brushite cements after 8 weeks. These results show the influence of the Si dopant on the physical, mechanical, in vitro osteoclastogenesis and in vivo osteogenic and vasculogenic properties of brushite cements.

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          Calcium phosphate cements as drug delivery materials.

          Calcium phosphate cements are used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as their osteoconductivity and injectability. Moreover, their low-temperature setting reaction and intrinsic porosity allow for the incorporation of drugs and active principles in the material. It is the aim of the present work to: a) provide an overview of the different approaches taken in the application of calcium phosphate cements for drug delivery in the skeletal system, and b) identify the most significant achievements. The drugs or active principles associated to calcium phosphate cements are classified in three groups, i) low molecular weight drugs; ii) high molecular weight biomolecules; and iii) ions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Silicon substitution in the calcium phosphate bioceramics.

            Silicon (Si) substitution in the crystal structures of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) generates materials with superior biological performance to stoichiometric counterparts. Si, an essential trace element required for healthy bone and connective tissues, influences the biological activity of CaP materials by modifying material properties and by direct effects on the physiological processes in skeletal tissue. The synthesis of Si substituted HA (Si-HA), Si substituted alpha-TCP (Si-alpha-TCP), and multiphase systems are reviewed. The biological performance of these Si substituted CaP materials in comparison to stoichiometric counterparts is discussed. Si substitution promotes biological activity by the transformation of the material surface to a biologically equivalent apatite by increasing the solubility of the material, by generating a more electronegative surface and by creating a finer microstructure. When Si is included in the TCP structure, recrystallization to a carbonated HA is mediated by serum proteins and osteoblast-like cells. Release of Si complexes to the extracellular media and the presence of Si at the material surface may induce additional dose-dependent stimulatory effects on cells of the bone and cartilage tissue systems.
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              Dicalcium phosphate cements: brushite and monetite.

              Dicalcium phosphate cements were developed two decades ago and ever since there has been a substantial growth in research into improving their properties in order to satisfy the requirements needed for several clinical applications. The present paper presents an overview of the rapidly expanding research field of the two main dicalcium phosphate bioceramics: brushite and monetite. This review begins with a summary of all the different formulae developed to prepare dicalcium phosphate cements, and their setting reaction, in order to set the scene for the key cement physical and chemical properties, such as compressive and tensile strength, cohesion, injectability and shelf-life. We address the issue of brushite conversion into either monetite or apatite. Moreover, we discuss the in vivo behavior of the cements, including their ability to promote bone formation, biodegradation and potential clinical applications in drug delivery, orthopedics, craniofacial surgery, cancer therapy and biosensors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JMCBDV
                Journal of Materials Chemistry B
                J. Mater. Chem. B
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2050-750X
                2050-7518
                2015
                2015
                : 3
                : 46
                : 8973-8982
                Article
                10.1039/C5TB01081K
                f5c3d742-d3bd-4c53-aafd-16ec7f4d8ed0
                © 2015
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C5TB01081K

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