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      The relationship between acrolein and oxidative stress in COPD: in systemic plasma and in local lung tissue

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Cigarette smoke produces a high level of acrolein, which is thought to be pathogenically involved in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study investigated the pathological role of acrolein in the development of COPD.

          Patients and methods

          Acrolein concentration was measured in plasmas obtained from 47 patients with COPD and 18 current smokers without COPD, and in supernatants of homogenized lung tissues obtained from 10 never-smokers, 8 current smokers, and 8 patients with COPD by high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxidant status and antioxidant activity were measured using derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolite (d-ROM) and bio-antioxidant power (BAP), respectively, in the Free Radical Elective Evaluation FRAS4 system. In addition, immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the over-presentation of acrolein in lung tissues of patients with COPD.

          Results

          Plasma concentrations of acrolein were significantly higher in the patients with COPD than the non-COPD smokers ( P<0.001), which significantly correlated with the oxidant status in patients with COPD (R=0.69, P<0.05). Similar pathological alterations in acrolein concentrations were found in the lung tissue supernatants of patients with COPD, which significantly correlated with the oxidant status in patients with COPD. Furthermore, acrolein was strongly expressed in the lung tissues of patients with COPD.

          Conclusion

          The increased acrolein concentrations were highly involved in the pathogenesis of COPD through interference in the balance of oxidative stress versus antioxidant potentiality.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Acrolein: sources, metabolism, and biomolecular interactions relevant to human health and disease.

          Acrolein (2-propenal) is ubiquitously present in (cooked) foods and in the environment. It is formed from carbohydrates, vegetable oils and animal fats, amino acids during heating of foods, and by combustion of petroleum fuels and biodiesel. Chemical reactions responsible for release of acrolein include heat-induced dehydration of glycerol, retro-aldol cleavage of dehydrated carbohydrates, lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and Strecker degradation of methionine and threonine. Smoking of tobacco products equals or exceeds the total human exposure to acrolein from all other sources. The main endogenous sources of acrolein are myeloperoxidase-mediated degradation of threonine and amine oxidase-mediated degradation of spermine and spermidine, which may constitute a significant source of acrolein in situations of oxidative stress and inflammation. Acrolein is metabolized by conjugation with glutathione and excreted in the urine as mercapturic acid metabolites. Acrolein forms Michael adducts with ascorbic acid in vitro, but the biological relevance of this reaction is not clear. The biological effects of acrolein are a consequence of its reactivity towards biological nucleophiles such as guanine in DNA and cysteine, lysine, histidine, and arginine residues in critical regions of nuclear factors, proteases, and other proteins. Acrolein adduction disrupts the function of these biomacromolecules which may result in mutations, altered gene transcription, and modulation of apoptosis.
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            Tobacco Smoke: Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Stable Free Radicals in Mechanisms of Oxidative Damage, Carcinogenesis and Synergistic Effects with Other Respirable Particles

            Tobacco smoke contains many toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals, as well as stable and unstable free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the particulate and the gas phase with the potential for biological oxidative damage. Epidemiological evidence established that smoking is one of the most important extrinsic factor of premature morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate oxidative and carcinogenic mechanisms of tobacco and synergistic action with other respirable particles in the respiratory system of smokers. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and spin-trapping techniques were used to study stable free radicals in the cigarette tar, and unstable superoxide anion (O2 •−) and hydroxyl (HO•) radicals in the smoke Results showed that the semiquinone radical system has the potential for redox recycling and oxidative action. Further, results proved that aqueous cigarette tar (ACT) solutions can generate adducts with DNA nucleobases, particularly the mutagenic 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (a biomarker for carcinogenesis). Also, we observed synergistic effects in the generation of HO•, through the Fenton reaction, with environmental respirable particles (asbestos fibres, coal dust, etc.) and ambient particulate matter (PM), such as PM10, PM2.5 and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). The highest synergistic effects was observed with the asbestos fibres (freshly grounded), PM2.5 and DEP. Finally, we discuss results from our previous study of conventional cellulose acetate filters and “bio-filters” with hemoglobin impregnated activated carbon, which showed that these filters do not substantially alter the free radical content of smoke in the particulate and in the gaseous phase.
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              Acrolein - a pulmonary hazard.

              Acrolein is a respiratory irritant that can be generated during cooking and is in environmental tobacco smoke. More plentiful in cigarette smoke than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), acrolein can adduct tumor suppressor p53 (TP53) DNA and may contribute to TP53-mutations in lung cancer. Acrolein is also generated endogenously at sites of injury, and excessive breath levels (sufficient to activate metalloproteinases and increase mucin transcripts) have been detected in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because of its reactivity with respiratory-lining fluid or cellular macromolecules, acrolein alters gene regulation, inflammation, mucociliary transport, and alveolar-capillary barrier integrity. In laboratory animals, acute exposures have lead to acute lung injury and pulmonary edema similar to that produced by smoke inhalation whereas lower concentrations have produced bronchial hyperreactivity, excessive mucus production, and alveolar enlargement. Susceptibility to acrolein exposure is associated with differential regulation of cell surface receptor, transcription factor, and ubiquitin-proteasome genes. Consequent to its pathophysiological impact, acrolein contributes to the morbidly and mortality associated with acute lung injury and COPD, and possibly asthma and lung cancer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                12 July 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 1527-1537
                Affiliations
                [1 ]The First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine , Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Molecular Pathology, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine , Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Masanori YasuoFirst Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine , 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto390-8621, JapanTel +81 26 337 2631Fax +81 26 336 3722Email yasumasa@ 123456shinshu-u.ac.jp
                Article
                208633
                10.2147/COPD.S208633
                6636184
                © 2019 Yasuo et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 2, References: 20, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                lung tissue, acrolein, plasma, oxidative stress, antioxidant potential, smoke

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