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      Characterizing Pediatric Non–Malarial Fever and Identifying the At-Risk Child in Rural Malawi

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          Objective. To characterize children with non–malarial fever at risk of nonrecovery or worsening in rural Malawi. Methods. This is a subgroup analysis of patients ≤14 years of age from a prospective cohort study in non–malarial fever subjects (temperature ≥37.5°C, or fever within 48 hours, and malaria negative) in southern Malawi cared for at a mobile clinic during the 2016 dry (August to September) or wet (November to December) season. Data collection included chart review and questionnaires; 14-day follow-up was conducted. We conducted univariate descriptive statistics on cohort characteristics, bivariate analyses to examine associations between characteristics and outcomes, and multivariate logistic regressions to explore factors associated with nonrecovery. Results. A total of 2893 patients were screened, 401 were enrolled, 286 of these were children, and 280 children completed follow-up. Eighty-seven percent reported symptom resolution, 12.9% reported no improvement, and there were no deaths or hospitalizations. No improvement was associated with dry season presentation (42.6% vs 75.0%, P < .0003), >2 days of symptoms (51.6% vs 72.2%, P = .03), and food insecurity (62.3% vs 86.1%, P = .007). Dry season subjects had a 4.35 times greater likelihood of nonimprovement (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96-11.11). Household food insecurity and being >2 hours from a permanent clinic were associated with no improvement (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.61, 95% CI = 1.81-14.29; and AOR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.11-5.36, respectively). Conclusion. Outcomes were generally excellent in this rural, outpatient pediatric cohort, though risk factors for nonrecovery included food insecurity, access to a standing clinic, and seasonality. Ideally, this study will inform clinic- and policy-level changes aimed at ameliorating the modifiable risk factors in Malawi and throughout rural Africa.

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          Longitudinal assessment of associations between food insecurity, antiretroviral adherence and HIV treatment outcomes in rural Uganda.

          Food insecurity is a potentially important barrier to the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in resource-limited settings. We undertook a longitudinal study in rural Uganda to estimate the associations between food insecurity and HIV treatment outcomes. Longitudinal cohort study. Participants were from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study and were followed quarterly for blood draws and structured interviews. We measured food insecurity with the validated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Our primary outcomes were: ART nonadherence (adherence 400 copies/ml); and low CD4 T-cell count (<350 cells/μl). We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the associations, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical variables. We followed 438 participants for a median of 33 months; 78.5% were food insecure at baseline. In adjusted analyses, food insecurity was associated with higher odds of ART nonadherence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.20, P < 0.05], incomplete viral suppression (AOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.18-1.96, P < 0.01), and CD4 T-cell count less than 350 (AOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.24-1.74, P < 0.01). Adding adherence as a covariate to the latter two models removed the association between food insecurity and viral suppression, but not between food insecurity and CD4 T-cell count. Food insecurity is longitudinally associated with poor HIV outcomes in rural Uganda. Intervention research is needed to determine the extent to which improved food security is causally related to improved HIV outcomes and to identify the most effective policies and programs to improve food security and health.
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            Food insecurity is associated with morbidity and patterns of healthcare utilization among HIV-infected individuals in a resource-poor setting.

            We undertook a longitudinal study in rural Uganda to understand the association of food insecurity with morbidity and patterns of healthcare utilization among HIV-infected individuals enrolled in an antiretroviral therapy program. Longitudinal cohort study. Participants were enrolled from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes cohort, and underwent quarterly structured interviews and blood draws. The primary predictor was food insecurity measured by the validated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Primary outcomes included health-related quality of life measured by the validated Medical Outcomes Study-HIV Physical Health Summary (PHS), incident self-reported opportunistic infections, number of hospitalizations, and missed clinic visits. To estimate model parameters, we used the method of generalized estimating equations, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables. Explanatory variables were lagged by 3 months to strengthen causal interpretations. Beginning in May 2007, 458 persons were followed for a median of 2.07 years, and 40% were severely food insecure at baseline. Severe food insecurity was associated with worse PHS, opportunistic infections, and increased hospitalizations (results were similar in concurrent and lagged models). Mild/moderate food insecurity was associated with missed clinic visits in concurrent models, whereas in lagged models, severe food insecurity was associated with reduced odds of missed clinic visits. Based on the negative impact of food insecurity on morbidity and patterns of healthcare utilization among HIV-infected individuals, policies and programs that address food insecurity should be a critical component of HIV treatment programs worldwide.
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              Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of community-acquired invasive bacterial infections in children aged 2-29 months in The Gambia.

              The incidence of community-acquired bacteremia (CAB) in Africa is several-fold higher than in industrialized countries. We report here the incidence of invasive bacterial infections in rural Gambia and compare the clinical characteristics of children with pneumococcal infection with those of children with extraintestinal nontyphoidal salmonella infection (NTS) or other bacterial infections. As part of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial, we investigated children aged 2-29 months who presented with signs suggestive of invasive bacterial infections. The incidence of invasive bacterial infections in all subjects was 1009 (95% CI, 903-1124) cases per 100,000 person-years. It was 1108 (95% CI, 953-1282) among children who had not received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Incidence decreased with increasing age but remained relatively high in 24- to 29-month-olds for pneumococcal infections. Pneumococcal infection was more frequent than NTS infections in the hot dry season. Respiratory symptoms and signs, consolidation on chest radiograph, and a primary diagnosis of pneumonia were more frequent in children with pneumococcal infection than in those with NTS or other infections. Diarrhea, laboratory evidence of malaria infection, and a primary diagnosis of malaria were more common in children with NTS infections. Bacterial infections continue to cause significant morbidity in rural Africa. Although vaccines could greatly reduce the pneumococcal burden, a high index of suspicion and appropriate use of antimicrobials are needed to manage other causes of invasive bacterial infections.

                Author and article information

                Glob Pediatr Health
                Glob Pediatr Health
                Global Pediatric Health
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                16 January 2018
                : 5
                [1 ]University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
                [2 ]ENANDY Research Consultancy, Blantyre, Malawi
                [3 ]Malawi University of Science and Technology, Thyolo, Malawi
                [4 ]Global AIDS Interfaith Alliance, San Rafael, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Teresa Bleakly Kortz, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, 550 16th Street, Fifth Floor, Box 0106, San Francisco, CA 94158-2549, USA. Email: Teresa.Bleakly@ 123456ucsf.edu
                © The Author(s) 2018

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                Original Article
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                January-December 2018


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