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      Decreased expression of lncRNA Malat1 in rat spinal cord contributes to neuropathic pain by increasing neuron excitability after brachial plexus avulsion

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          Purpose: Neuropathic pain (NP) is a challenging clinical problem due to its complex pathogenesis. In our previous study using microarray, we found that the levels of lncRNA Malat1 were decreased in the spinal cord of NP rat after brachial plexus avulsion, but its contribution to NP remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate its role in the pathogenesis of NP.

          Methods: In the NP model of complete brachial plexus avulsion rat, spinal cords were harvested, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to test the spatial expression of Malat1 and qRT-PCR was used to confirm the quantitative expression of Malat1. In primary cultured neurons, Malat1 expression interfered with adenovirus. Spontaneous electric activities of neurons were tested using multi-electrode arrays and apoptosis of neurons was tested using TUNEL method. The change of intracellular calcium concentration was analyzed using calcium imaging method.

          Results: Decreased Malat1 expression was confirmed using qRT-PCR, and Malat1 was identified in the cytoplasm of neurons in spinal cord, but not in glia. In vitro, the decrease of Malat1 resulted in an increase in the frequency of spontaneous electric activity in neurons but had no effect on neuronal apoptosis. Further analysis indicated during glutamate stimulation, the change of intracellular calcium concentration in neurons with downregulated Malat1 expression was significantly greater than that in normal neurons.

          Conclusion: Reduced Malat1 expression may induce NP by increasing neuronal excitability in the spinal cord via regulation of calcium flux.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Neuropathic pain: diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment.

          Neuropathic pain develops as a result of lesions or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system either in the periphery or centrally. Examples of neuropathic pain include painful polyneuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, and post-stroke pain. Clinically, neuropathic pain is characterised by spontaneous ongoing or shooting pain and evoked amplified pain responses after noxious or non-noxious stimuli. Methods such as questionnaires for screening and assessment focus on the presence and quality of neuropathic pain. Basic research is enabling the identification of different pathophysiological mechanisms, and clinical assessment of symptoms and signs can help to determine which mechanisms are involved in specific neuropathic pain disorders. Management of neuropathic pain requires an interdisciplinary approach, centred around pharmacological treatment. A better understanding of neuropathic pain and, in particular, of the translation of pathophysiological mechanisms into sensory signs will lead to a more effective and specific mechanism-based treatment approach. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Models and mechanisms of hyperalgesia and allodynia.

            Hyperalgesia and allodynia are frequent symptoms of disease and may be useful adaptations to protect vulnerable tissues. Both may, however, also emerge as diseases in their own right. Considerable progress has been made in developing clinically relevant animal models for identifying the most significant underlying mechanisms. This review deals with experimental models that are currently used to measure (sect. II) or to induce (sect. III) hyperalgesia and allodynia in animals. Induction and expression of hyperalgesia and allodynia are context sensitive. This is discussed in section IV. Neuronal and nonneuronal cell populations have been identified that are indispensable for the induction and/or the expression of hyperalgesia and allodynia as summarized in section V. This review focuses on highly topical spinal mechanisms of hyperalgesia and allodynia including intrinsic and synaptic plasticity, the modulation of inhibitory control (sect. VI), and neuroimmune interactions (sect. VII). The scientific use of language improves also in the field of pain research. Refined definitions of some technical terms including the new definitions of hyperalgesia and allodynia by the International Association for the Study of Pain are illustrated and annotated in section I.
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              Central mechanisms of pathological pain.

               Rohini Kuner (2010)
              Chronic pain is a major challenge to clinical practice and basic science. The peripheral and central neural networks that mediate nociception show extensive plasticity in pathological disease states. Disease-induced plasticity can occur at both structural and functional levels and is manifest as changes in individual molecules, synapses, cellular function and network activity. Recent work has yielded a better understanding of communication within the neural matrix of physiological pain and has also brought important advances in concepts of injury-induced hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia and how these might contribute to the complex, multidimensional state of chronic pain. This review focuses on the molecular determinants of network plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS) and discusses their relevance to the development of new therapeutic approaches.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                23 April 2019
                : 12
                : 1297-1310
                [1 ]Department of Hand Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University , Shanghai 200040, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Key Laboratory of Hand Reconstruction, Ministry of Health , Shanghai 200032, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Shanghai Key Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve and Microsurgery , Shanghai 200032, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Hand Surgery Department, Shenzhen People’s Hospital , Shenzhen 518020, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xin ZhaoDepartment of Hand Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University , No. 12 Rd. Wulumuqi (M), Jing’an District, Shanghai200040, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +861 381 613 1608Email zhaoxin888@ 123456sina.com
                © 2019 Meng et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 34, Pages: 14
                Original Research


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