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      Social amoebae trap and kill bacteria by casting DNA nets

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          Abstract

          Extracellular traps (ETs) from neutrophils are reticulated nets of DNA decorated with anti-microbial granules, and are capable of trapping and killing extracellular pathogens. Various phagocytes of mammals and invertebrates produce ETs, however, the evolutionary history of this DNA-based host defence strategy is unclear. Here we report that Sentinel (S) cells of the multicellular slug stage of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum produce ETs upon stimulation with bacteria or lipopolysaccharide in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. The production of ETs by S cells requires a Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing protein TirA and reactive oxygen species-generating NADPH oxidases. Disruption of these genes results in decreased clearance of bacterial infections. Our results demonstrate that D. discoideum is a powerful model organism to study the evolution and conservation of mechanisms of cell-intrinsic immunity, and suggest that the origin of DNA-based ETs as an innate immune defence predates the emergence of metazoans.

          Abstract

          Neutrophils secrete net-like structures made of DNA and anti-microbial peptides, which can trap and kill extracellular pathogens. Here, the authors show that such nets are also produced by so-called Sentinel cells in the multicellular slug stage of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

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          Most cited references 26

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          The genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

          The social amoebae are exceptional in their ability to alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms. Here we describe the genome of the best-studied member of this group, Dictyostelium discoideum. The gene-dense chromosomes of this organism encode approximately 12,500 predicted proteins, a high proportion of which have long, repetitive amino acid tracts. There are many genes for polyketide synthases and ABC transporters, suggesting an extensive secondary metabolism for producing and exporting small molecules. The genome is rich in complex repeats, one class of which is clustered and may serve as centromeres. Partial copies of the extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) element are found at the ends of each chromosome, suggesting a novel telomere structure and the use of a common mechanism to maintain both the rDNA and chromosomal termini. A proteome-based phylogeny shows that the amoebozoa diverged from the animal-fungal lineage after the plant-animal split, but Dictyostelium seems to have retained more of the diversity of the ancestral genome than have plants, animals or fungi.
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            Dynamic NETosis is Carried Out by Live Neutrophils in Human and Mouse Bacterial Abscesses and During Severe Gram-Positive Infection

            Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are released, as neutrophils die in vitro, in a process requiring hours, leaving a temporal gap for invasive microbes to exploit. Functional neutrophils undergoing NETosis have not been documented. During Gram-positive skin infections, we directly visualized live PMN in vivo rapidly releasing NETs, which prevented bacterial dissemination. NETosis occurred during crawling thereby casting large areas of NETs. NET-releasing PMN developed diffuse decondensed nuclei ultimately becoming devoid of DNA. Cells with abnormal nuclei displayed unusual crawling behavior highlighted by erratic pseudopods and hyperpolarization consistent with the nucleus being a fulcrum for crawling. A combined requirement of Tlr2 and complement mediated opsonization tightly regulated NET release. Additionally live human PMN developed decondensed nuclei and formed NETS in vivo and intact anuclear neutrophils were abundant in Gram-positive human abscesses. Therefore early in infection, non-cell death NETosis occurs in vivo during Gram-positive infection in mice and humans.
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              Neutrophil extracellular traps mediate a host defense response to human immunodeficiency virus-1.

              Neutrophils contribute to pathogen clearance by producing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are genomic DNA-based net-like structures that capture bacteria and fungi. Although NETs also express antiviral factors, such as myeloperoxidase and α-defensin, the involvement of NETs in antiviral responses remains unclear. We show that NETs capture human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and promote HIV-1 elimination through myeloperoxidase and α-defensin. Neutrophils detect HIV-1 by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR7 and TLR8, which recognize viral nucleic acids. Engagement of TLR7 and TLR8 induces the generation of reactive oxygen species that trigger NET formation, leading to NET-dependent HIV-1 elimination. However, HIV-1 counteracts this response by inducing C-type lectin CD209-dependent production of interleukin (IL)-10 by dendritic cells to inhibit NET formation. IL-10 suppresses the reactive oxygen species-dependent generation of NETs induced upon TLR7 and TLR8 engagement, resulting in disrupted NET-dependent HIV-1 elimination. Therefore, NET formation is an antiviral response that is counteracted by HIV-1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group
                2041-1723
                01 March 2016
                2016
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry, Science II, University of Geneva , Geneva 1211, Switzerland
                [2 ]Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza , Houston, Texas 77030-3498, USA
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                ncomms10938
                10.1038/ncomms10938
                4773522
                26927887
                Copyright © 2016, Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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