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      Limitations of PCR detection of filarial DNA in human stools from subjects non-infected with soil-transmitted helminths Translated title: Limites de la détection par PCR d’ADN de filaires dans les selles humaines de sujets non-infectés par les géohelminthes

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          The standard techniques for diagnosis of human filariasis are the microscopic examination of blood smears or skin biopsies, which are relatively invasive and poorly sensitive at low levels of infection. Recently, filarial DNA has been detected in fecal samples from non-human primates in Central Africa. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof-of-concept of a non-invasive molecular diagnosis technique for human filariasis by targeting fragments of 12S rDNA, Cox1, ITS1 and LL20-15kDa ladder antigen-gene by conventional PCR in DNA extracted from stool samples of 52 people infected with Mansonella perstans and/or Loa loa. Of these, 10 patients were infected with soil-transmitted helminths ( Trichuris trichiura and/or Ascaris lumbricoides), and none were positive for Necator americanus. Interestingly, no filarial gene fragments were detected in the stools of any of the 52 patients. Future studies should evaluate whether a co-infection with soil-transmitted helminths causing gastrointestinal bleeding and likely allowing (micro)filaria exit into the digestive tract, may facilitate the molecular detection of filarial DNA fragments in stool samples.

          Translated abstract

          Les techniques standards de diagnostic des filarioses humaines (examen microscopique de gouttes épaisses ou de biopsies cutanées) sont relativement invasives et peu sensibles à de faibles niveaux d’infection. De l’ADN de filaires a été récemment détecté dans des échantillons de fèces de primates non-humains en Afrique centrale. L’objectif de cette étude était de démontrer la preuve de concept d’un diagnostic moléculaire non invasif des filarioses chez l’homme en ciblant des fragments d’ADNr 12S, Cox1, ITS1 et l’antigène LL20-15kDa par PCR classique. L’ADN a été extrait d’échantillons de selles de 52 personnes infectées par Mansonella perstans et/ou Loa loa. Parmi ces patients, dix étaient infectés par des géohelminthes ( Trichuris trichiura et/ou Ascaris lumbricoides) et aucun n’était positif pour Necator americanus. De manière intéressante, aucun fragment de gène de filaires n’a été détecté dans les selles des 52 patients. Des études futures devraient être menées pour évaluer si une coinfection avec des géohelminthes (provoquant des hémorragies gastro-intestinales et permettant probablement l’effraction de (micro)filaires dans le tube digestif) facilite la détection moléculaire de fragments d’ADN de filaires dans les selles.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Neglected tropical diseases: diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and control.

          Branded in 2005, "neglected tropical diseases" have gained traction in terms of advocacy, interest for research, enhanced funding and political will for their control and eventual elimination. Starting with an initial set of 13 neglected tropical diseases--seven helminth, three bacterial and three protozoal infections--the list considerably expanded to more than 40 diseases that now also includes viral, fungal and ectoparasitic infections. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the neglected tropical diseases, their causative agents and the current geographical distribution, including their importance for the general practitioners seeing returning travellers and migrants in Switzerland. We characterise the most important of the neglected tropical diseases in terms of at-risk population, estimated number of infections, annual mortality rates and global burden, including current knowledge gaps. With an emphasis on neglected tropical diseases due to helminths, protozoa and ectoparasites, we review common diagnostic methods and current recommendations for treatment at the population level and the individual patient, thereby juxtaposing the situation in highly endemic countries on one side, with Switzerland on the other. We highlight the clinical presentation and management of the neglected tropical diseases in general and then elaborate on two examples, strongyloidiasis and leptospirosis. Our review provides a global perspective of neglected tropical diseases and we hope that it will prove useful for the general practitioner and clinician in Switzerland and elsewhere to enhance their suspicion index, differential diagnosis, clinical management and treatment, including referral to specialised clinics and laboratories when need be.
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            A phylogenetic analysis of filarial nematodes: comparison with the phylogeny of Wolbachia endosymbionts.

            Infection with the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia is widespread in filarial nematodes. Previous studies have suggested concordance between the phylogeny of Wolbachia with that of their nematode hosts. However, there is only one published molecular phylogenetic study of filarial species, based on the 5S rRNA gene spacer. The phylogeny proposed by this study is partially incongruent with previous classifications of filarial nematodes, based on morphological characters. Furthermore, both traditional classifications and molecular phylogenies are, in part, inconsistent with the phylogeny of Wolbachia. Here we report mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences for 11 species of filaria and for another spirurid nematode which was included as an outgroup. In addition, 16S rRNA, wsp and ftsZ gene sequences were generated for the Wolbachia of several filarial species, in order to complete the available data sets and further resolve the phylogeny of Wolbachia in nematodes. We used these data to evaluate whether nematode and Wolbachia phylogenies are concordant. Some of the possible phylogenetic reconstructions based on COI gene were congruent with the phylogeny of Wolbachia and supported the grouping of the rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis with the lymphatic filariae (i.e. Brugia spp. and Wuchereria spp.) and the sister group relationship of Dirofilaria spp. and Onchocerca spp. However, the placement of the Wolbachia-free filaria Acanthocheilonema viteae is ambiguous and dependent on the phylogenetic methods used.
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              A phylogenetic analysis of filarial nematodes: comparison with the phylogeny of Wolbachia endosymbionts


                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                27 May 2021
                : 28
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2021/01 )
                [1 ] Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMI 233-INSERM U1175-University of Montpellier 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5 France
                [2 ] Centre for Research on Filariasis and Other Tropical Diseases (CRFilMT) PO Box 5797 Yaoundé Cameroon
                [3 ] Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (FMBS) PO Box 1364 Yaoundé Cameroon
                [4 ] Department of Parasitology–Mycology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) of Montpellier, University of Montpellier 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 France
                Author notes

                Current address: Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Maladies Infectieuses et vecteurs: Ecologie, génétique, Evolution et Contrôle (MIVEGEC) (IRD 224 – CNRS 5290 – University of Montpellier), Montpellier, France.

                [* ]Corresponding author: sabrina.locatelli@ 123456ird.fr
                parasite200212 10.1051/parasite/2021046
                © M.P.M. Doret et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2021

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 18, Pages: 6
                Research Article

                mansonella perstans, loa loa, stool sample, pcr, cameroon


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