Biochemical assessment of growth hormone (GH) status is required in both suspected GH deficiency and GH excess. GH secretion can either be measured through investigation of the pituitary or by monitoring markers that change as a consequence of GH action on its target tissues. The two most widely used and, to date, best validated biochemical parameters are immunoassay measurement of either human GH (hGH) or insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. The fundamental difference between measurement of hGH and IGF-I is that the first reflects GH secretion while the second reflects GH action. However, because GH secretion is pulsatile in nature, random blood sampling for determination of hGH levels is only minimally informative. Analytical methods for measuring GH and IGF-I show considerable between-method variability. Since these parameters are used in establishing diagnoses and in monitoring GH-related diseases, the endocrinologist should be aware of the specifications and limitations of the analytical methods available.