Blog
About

1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis: Association with Emerging Vascular Risk Factors

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background: The established risk factors for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity,smoking, old age and family history. In the last few years, several emerging risk factors have been proposed as predictors of ARAS, namely homocysteine, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a) and creatinine. Methods: We searched Pubmed/Medline for studies investigating the prognostic value of each of these emerging risk factors in ARAS. Results: Creatinine and C-reactive protein seem to be the most promising predictors of ARAS, whereas the prognostic value of homocysteine, lipoprotein(a) and fibrinogen is not yet fully determined. Conclusion: The establishment of a definite role for these emerging risk factors could result in earlier recognition and/or better management of ARAS with potential regression/slowing down of progression of stenosis. Modifying these markers may also improve the therapeutic approach of the associated systemic atherosclerosis in these high-risk patients. Future trials should focus on the effect of different classes of drugs (e.g. statins and fibrates) on the levels of the emerging risk factors and the association with ARAS progression.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 114

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Relation between renal dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction.

          The presence of coexisting conditions has a substantial effect on the outcome of acute myocardial infarction. Renal failure is associated with one of the highest risks, but the influence of milder degrees of renal impairment is less well defined. As part of the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT), we identified 14,527 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by clinical or radiologic signs of heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both, and a documented serum creatinine measurement. Patients were randomly assigned to receive captopril, valsartan, or both. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by means of the four-component Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, and the patients were grouped according to their estimated GFR. We used a 70-candidate variable model to adjust and compare overall mortality and composite cardiovascular events among four GFR groups. The distribution of estimated GFR was wide and normally shaped, with a mean (+/-SD) value of 70+/-21 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area. The prevalence of coexisting risk factors, prior cardiovascular disease, and a Killip class of more than I was greatest among patients with a reduced estimated GFR (less than 45.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2), and the use of aspirin, beta-blockers, statins, or coronary-revascularization procedures was lowest in this group. The risk of death or the composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, reinfarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, or resuscitation after cardiac arrest increased with declining estimated GFRs. Although the rate of renal events increased with declining estimated GFRs, the adverse outcomes were predominantly cardiovascular. Below 81.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, each reduction of the estimated GFR by 10 units was associated with a hazard ratio for death and nonfatal cardiovascular outcomes of 1.10 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.12), which was independent of the treatment assignment. Even mild renal disease, as assessed by the estimated GFR, should be considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications after a myocardial infarction. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Plasma fibrinogen level and the risk of major cardiovascular diseases and nonvascular mortality: an individual participant meta-analysis.

             G Tofler,  I Ford,  V Palmieri (2005)
            Plasma fibrinogen levels may be associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. To assess the relationships of fibrinogen levels with risk of major vascular and with risk of nonvascular outcomes based on individual participant data. Relevant studies were identified by computer-assisted searches, hand searches of reference lists, and personal communication with relevant investigators. All identified prospective studies were included with information available on baseline fibrinogen levels and details of subsequent major vascular morbidity and/or cause-specific mortality during at least 1 year of follow-up. Studies were excluded if they recruited participants on the basis of having had a previous history of cardiovascular disease; participants with known preexisting CHD or stroke were excluded. Individual records were provided on each of 154,211 participants in 31 prospective studies. During 1.38 million person-years of follow-up, there were 6944 first nonfatal myocardial infarctions or stroke events and 13,210 deaths. Cause-specific mortality was generally available. Analyses involved proportional hazards modeling with adjustment for confounding by known cardiovascular risk factors and for regression dilution bias. Within each age group considered (40-59, 60-69, and > or =70 years), there was an approximately log-linear association with usual fibrinogen level for the risk of any CHD, any stroke, other vascular (eg, non-CHD, nonstroke) mortality, and nonvascular mortality. There was no evidence of a threshold within the range of usual fibrinogen level studied at any age. The age- and sex- adjusted hazard ratio per 1-g/L increase in usual fibrinogen level for CHD was 2.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.24-2.60); stroke, 2.06 (95% CI, 1.83-2.33); other vascular mortality, 2.76 (95% CI, 2.28-3.35); and nonvascular mortality, 2.03 (95% CI, 1.90-2.18). The hazard ratios for CHD and stroke were reduced to about 1.8 after further adjustment for measured values of several established vascular risk factors. In a subset of 7011 participants with available C-reactive protein values, the findings for CHD were essentially unchanged following additional adjustment for C-reactive protein. The associations of fibrinogen level with CHD or stroke did not differ substantially according to sex, smoking, blood pressure, blood lipid levels, or several features of study design. In this large individual participant meta-analysis, moderately strong associations were found between usual plasma fibrinogen level and the risks of CHD, stroke, other vascular mortality, and nonvascular mortality in a wide range of circumstances in healthy middle-aged adults. Assessment of any causal relevance of elevated fibrinogen levels to disease requires additional research.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Statin therapy, LDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and coronary artery disease.

              Recent trials have demonstrated better outcomes with intensive than with moderate statin treatment. Intensive treatment produced greater reductions in both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP), suggesting a relationship between these two biomarkers and disease progression. We performed intravascular ultrasonography in 502 patients with angiographically documented coronary disease. Patients were randomly assigned to receive moderate treatment (40 mg of pravastatin orally per day) or intensive treatment (80 mg of atorvastatin orally per day). Ultrasonography was repeated after 18 months to measure the progression of atherosclerosis. Lipoprotein and CRP levels were measured at baseline and follow-up. In the group as a whole, the mean LDL cholesterol level was reduced from 150.2 mg per deciliter (3.88 mmol per liter) at baseline to 94.5 mg per deciliter (2.44 mmol per liter) at 18 months (P<0.001), and the geometric mean CRP level decreased from 2.9 to 2.3 mg per liter (P<0.001). The correlation between the reduction in LDL cholesterol levels and that in CRP levels was weak but significant in the group as a whole (r=0.13, P=0.005), but not in either treatment group alone. In univariate analyses, the percent change in the levels of LDL cholesterol, CRP, apolipoprotein B-100, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were related to the rate of progression of atherosclerosis. After adjustment for the reduction in these lipid levels, the decrease in CRP levels was independently and significantly correlated with the rate of progression. Patients with reductions in both LDL cholesterol and CRP that were greater than the median had significantly slower rates of progression than patients with reductions in both biomarkers that were less than the median (P=0.001). For patients with coronary artery disease, the reduced rate of progression of atherosclerosis associated with intensive statin treatment, as compared with moderate statin treatment, is significantly related to greater reductions in the levels of both atherogenic lipoproteins and CRP. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2008
                February 2008
                19 December 2007
                : 108
                : 1
                : c56-c66
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Clinical Biochemistry and Academic Department of Surgery, and bRenal Unit, Royal Free Hospital, and cVascular Surgery, Academic Department of Surgery, and dDepartment of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Free Hospital and Royal Free University College Medical School, London, UK
                Article
                112556 Nephron Clin Pract 2008;108:c56–c66
                10.1159/000112556
                18097149
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 153, Pages: 1
                Categories
                Minireviews

                Comments

                Comment on this article