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      Usefulness of Progressive Inhomogeneity of Myocardial Perfusion and Chronotropic Incompetence in Detecting Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy: Evaluation with Dobutamine Thallium-201 Myocardial SPECT

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          Abstract

          Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the value of longitudinal follow-up of dobutamine thallium-201 single photon emission tomography (<sup>201</sup>Tl SPECT) in the development of significant cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) after orthotopic heart transplantation. Methods: We studied 38 cardiac recipients (mean age 57 ± 12 years) who underwent at least two follow-up dobutamine <sup>201</sup>Tl SPECT since January 1998. All patients had normal coronary angiography and normal left ventricular function initially. Results: After 2.3 ± 1.8 years, 12 patients developed significant CAV and there were 4 cardiac deaths (1 died suddenly). Of the 99 scans retrospectively analyzed, patients with significant CAV had elevated values of inhomogeneity score, lung/heart ratio (LHR) at stress and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (all p < 0.05). The higher values of inhomogeneity were significantly correlated with higher stress LHR (r = 0.301, p = 0.021), and lower ejection fraction (r = –0.379, p < 0.001). Progressive inhomogeneity was noted in all heart recipients, and more rapid, although statistically insignificant, in patients who developed significant CAV. Ten patients had inadequate chronotropic response to dobutamine infusion up to 40 µg/kg/min in the follow-up studies. The late onset of chronotropic incompetence was an independent predictor of CAV development (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Progressive inhomogeneity of myocardial perfusion, higher lung uptake at stress and chronotropic incompetence assessed by dobutamine <sup>201</sup>Tl myocardial SPECT provide incremental diagnostic value in detecting significant CAV.

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          The incremental prognostic value of percentage of heart rate reserve achieved over myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography in the prediction of cardiac death and all-cause mortality: superiority over 85% of maximal age-predicted heart rate.

          We sought to determine whether chronotropic incompetence (CI) adds incremental value in predicting cardiac death (CD) and all-cause mortality and to determine which marker of CI is superior. Chronotropic incompetence, defined by either a low percent heart rate (HR) reserve achieved or failure to achieve 85% maximal age-predicted heart rate (MA-PHR), is a predictor of mortality. These variables have not been examined together in a comprehensive myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT), or MPS, model. A total of 10,021 patients who underwent exercise MPS, evaluated by a summed stress score (SSS), were followed up for 719 +/- 252 days. Percent HR reserve = (peak HR - rest HR)/(220 - age - rest HR) x 100, with <80% considered abnormal. A total of 2,956 patients (29.5%) had low %HR reserve; 1,331 (13.3%) achieved <85% MA-PHR; and 1,296 (13.0%) had both. There were 234 deaths (93 CDs). On multivariate analysis, the SSS, %HR reserve, and inability to achieve 85% MA-PHR were predictors of all-cause mortality and CD (all p < 0.01). Myocardial perfusion SPECT was the most powerful predictor of CD (chi-square = 50). When the %HR reserve and ability to achieve 85% MA-PHR were considered, only the former remained a predictor of CD (p = 0.006 vs. p = 0.59). In a comprehensive MPS model, CI was an important predictor of CD and all-cause mortality. Percent HR reserve was superior to the ability to achieve 85% MA-PHR in predicting CD; MPS was superior to both. Combined with previous studies, the findings suggest that %HR reserve should become the standard for assessing the adequacy of HR response during exercise testing, and that it should be routinely incorporated in risk stratification algorithms.
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            Prognostic significance of impairment of heart rate response to exercise

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              Task force 5: Complications

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2005
                September 2005
                15 September 2005
                : 104
                : 3
                : 156-161
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNuclear Medicine, bInternal Medicine, and cSurgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan
                Article
                87767 Cardiology 2005;104:156–161
                10.1159/000087767
                16127274
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 37, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Diagnostic Cardiology

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