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      Combined application of dexamethasone and hyperbaric oxygen therapy yields better efficacy for patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

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          Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (DEACMP) commonly occurs after recovering from acute CO poisoning. This study was performed to assess the efficacy of the combined application of dexamethasone and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in patients with DEACMP.

          Patients and methods

          A total of 120 patients with DEACMP were recruited and randomly assigned into the experimental group (receiving dexamethasone 5 mg/day or 10 mg/day plus HBO therapy) and control group (HBO therapy as monotherapy). Meanwhile, the conventional treatments were provided for all the patients. We used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale to assess the cognitive function, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) to assess the neurological function and the remission rate (RR) to assess the clinical efficacy. Myelin basic protein (MBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was also measured.


          After 4 weeks of treatment, compared to the control group, the experimental group had a significantly higher remission rate ( P=0.032), a significantly higher average MMSE score ( P=0.037) and a significantly lower average NIHSS score ( P=0.002). Meanwhile, there was a trend toward better improvement with dexamethasone 10 mg/day, and the level of MBP in the CSF of patients was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group ( P<0.0001). The addition of dexamethasone did not significantly increase the incidence of adverse events.


          These results indicate that the combined application of dexamethasone and HBO therapy could yield better efficacy for patients with DEACMP and should be viewed as a potential new therapy.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Interpreting the significance of changes in health-related quality-of-life scores.

          To determine the significance to patients of changes in health-related quality-of-life (HLQ) scores assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). A subjective significance questionnaire (SSQ), which asks patients about perceived changes in physical, emotional, and social functioning and in global quality of life (global QL) and the QLQ-C30 were completed by patients who received chemotherapy for either breast cancer or small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). In the SSQ, patients rated their perception of change since the last time they completed the QLQ-C30 using a 7-category scale that ranged from "much worse" through "no change" to "much better." For each category of change in the SSQ, the corresponding differences were calculated in QLQ-C30 mean scores and effect sizes were determined. For patients who indicated "no change" in the SSQ, the mean change in scores in the corresponding QLQ-C30 domains was not significantly different from 0. For patients who indicated "a little" change either for better or for worse, the mean change in scores was about 5 to 10; for "moderate" change, about 10 to 20; and for "very much" change, greater than 20. Effect sizes increased in concordance with increasing changes in SSQ ratings and QLQ-C30 scores. The significance of changes in QLQ-C30 scores can be interpreted in terms of small, moderate, or large changes in quality of life as reported by patients in the SSQ. The magnitude of these changes also can be used to calculate the sample sizes required to detect a specified change in clinical trials.
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            Practice recommendations in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of carbon monoxide poisoning.

            Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in modern society, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in the United States annually. Over the past two decades, sufficient information has been published about carbon monoxide poisoning in the medical literature to draw firm conclusions about many aspects of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and clinical management of the syndrome, along with evidence-based recommendations for optimal clinical practice. This article provides clinical practice guidance to the pulmonary and critical care community regarding the diagnosis, management, and prevention of acute CO poisoning. The article represents the consensus opinion of four recognized content experts in the field. Supporting data were drawn from the published, peer-reviewed literature on CO poisoning, placing emphasis on selecting studies that most closely mirror clinical practice.
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              Differential roles of NMDA receptor subtypes in ischemic neuronal cell death and ischemic tolerance.

              Activation of NMDA subtypes of glutamate receptors is implicated in cell damage induced by ischemia as well as for the establishment of ischemic tolerance after ischemic preconditioning in animal models. We investigated the contributions of NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors to ischemic cell death and ischemic tolerance in a rat model of transient global ischemia. Transient global ischemia was produced in rats by 4-vessel occlusion. Neuronal injury was analyzed by Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl staining. Phosphorylation of CREB was detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate the mRNA level of cpg15 and bdnf. NR2A subtype-specific antagonist NVP-AAM077 enhanced neuronal death after transient global ischemia and abolished the induction of ischemic tolerance. In contrast, NR2B subtype-specific antagonist ifenprodil attenuated ischemic cell death and enhanced preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. Furthermore, selectively blocking NR2A-, but not NR2B-, containing NMDA receptors inhibited ischemia-induced phosphorylation of CREB and the subsequent upregulation of CREB target genes such as cpg15 and bdnf. We found that NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptor subtypes play differential roles in ischemic neuronal death and ischemic tolerance, suggesting attractive new strategies for the development of drugs for patients with stroke.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                23 February 2017
                : 11
                : 513-519
                [1 ]Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing
                [2 ]Department of Neurology, Baotou Central Hospital, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Lehua Yu, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 76 Linjiang Road, 400010 Chongqing, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 23 6309 3543, Email yulehuaa@ 123456yeah.net
                © 2017 Xiang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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