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      Oxidative demethylenation and subsequent glucuronidation are the major metabolic pathways of berberine in rats

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      Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

      Wiley

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          Abstract

          Present study was designed to explore roles of metabolic clearance in the disposition of berberine (BBR) in rats, with a focus on oxidative metabolism and subsequent glucuronidation. Plasma from rats after intravenous administration of BBR was collected to identify and quantify BBR and its major metabolites. The major circulating metabolites of BBR were oxidative metabolites M1 (via demethylation) and M2 (via demethylenation) and their corresponding glucuronides, with M2-glucuronide approximately 24-fold higher than M1-glucuronide. Incubations with rat liver microsomes were conducted to examine formation kinetics of two oxidative metabolites-M1 and M2, and depletion kinetics of M1 and M2, leading to the formation of glucuronide conjugates. Efforts were also made to examine roles of key CYPs and UGTs isoforms responsible for BBR metabolism using known chemical inhibitors and/or substrates. In vitro, the formation of M1 and M2 were comparable and multiple CYP enzymes were involved. In contrast, the glucuronidation of M2 was much faster than that of M1. Inhibition studies using well-characterized UGT substrates suggested both M1 and M2 could be glucuronidated by UGT1A1 and UGT2B1 while M2 glucuronidation was favored by UGT1A1. In summary, oxidative demethylenation and the subsequent glucuronidation were the major metabolic pathways of BBR in rats. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
          Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
          Wiley
          00223549
          November 2009
          November 2009
          : 98
          : 11
          : 4391-4401
          Article
          10.1002/jps.21721
          19283771
          © 2009

          https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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