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      Mate locating and access behaviour of the parasitic pea crab, Nepinnotheres novaezelandiae, an important parasite of the mussel Perna canaliculus Translated title: Comportement de recherche et d’accès au partenaire sexuel chez le crabe parasite Nepinnotheres novaezelandiae, un parasite important de la moule Perna canaliculus

      1 , * , 1

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Pea crab, Perna canaliculus, Host manipulation, Aquaculture, Pinnotherid, Greenshell

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          Abstract

          Pea crabs are globally ubiquitous symbionts in the marine environment that cause serious economic impact in the aquaculture production of several major bivalve species. However, little is known about their host-parasite interactions, especially the mating behaviour of these parasites that could prove useful for controlling their infestation in aquaculture. In this study, the mate location behaviour of male New Zealand pea crabs, Nepinnotheres novaezelandiae (Filhol, 1885), was observed when dwelling in its preferred host, the commercially important green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus. Given the cryptic behaviour of the male crabs, a novel trapping system was developed to determine whether male crabs would exit their mussel hosts in response to an upstream female crab. The presence of receptive female crabs placed upstream successfully attracted 60% of male crabs from their host over 24 h. Observations of the nocturnal mate-finding behaviour of male crabs were made in darkness using infrared video recordings. Males spent on average 49 min on empty hosts and never left a mussel containing a female conspecific once found, spending 200 min on average to gain entry to the mussel. Male crabs were often observed stroking the mantle edge of the mussel whilst attempting to gain entry, successfully increasing mussel valve gape during entry from 3.7 to 5.5 mm. A pheromone-based mate location system is likely used by this crab to greatly reduce the risks associated with the location of females.

          Translated abstract

          Les crabes petit pois sont globalement des symbiotes omniprésents dans le milieu marin, qui ont de graves conséquences économiques dans la production par l’aquaculture de plusieurs espèces majeures de bivalves. Cependant, on en sait peu sur leurs interactions hôte-parasite, en particulier le comportement d’accouplement de ces parasites, qui pourraient s’avérer utile pour contrôler leur infestation dans l’aquaculture. Dans cette étude, le comportement de recherche de partenaire sexuel par le crabe mâle, Nepinnotheres novaezelandiae (Filhol, 1885), a été observé chez leur hôte préféré, la moule verte d’importance commerciale Perna canaliculus. Étant donné le comportement cryptique du crabe mâle, un nouveau système de piégeage a été mis au point pour déterminer si les crabes mâles quittent leurs hôtes moules en réponse à un crabe femelle en amont. La présence de crabes femelles réceptives situées en amont a réussi à attirer 60 % des crabes mâles de leur hôte sur 24 heures. Les observations du comportement nocturne de recherche de partenaire sexuel des crabes mâles ont été faites dans l’obscurité en utilisant des enregistrements vidéo infrarouge. Les mâles ont passé en moyenne 49 min sur des hôtes vides et n’ont jamais quitté une moule contenant un congénère femelle une fois trouvée, passant 200 min en moyenne pour entrer dans la moule. Les crabes mâles ont été souvent observés en train de caresser le bord du manteau de la moule pour essayer d’entrer, augmentant avec succès l’entrebâillement de la moule pendant leur entrée de 3.7 à 5.5 mm. Il est probable qu’un système de localisation de partenaire sexuel à base de phéromones est utilisé par ce crabe pour réduire considérablement les risques associés à la recherche des femelles.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Predation risk as a cost of reproduction.

           C Magnhagen (1991)
          Predation risk as a cost of reproduction in animals has recently received increased empirical and theoretical attention. Higher risk may be associated with all stages of reproduction. Examples of evolutionary responses to this increased risk include habitat choice, duration and timing of display and copulation, changes in brightness of breeding coloration, and changes in life history traits such as age of reproduction and reproductive effort. Copyright © 1991. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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            Chemical and visual communication during mate searching in rock shrimp.

            Mate searching in crustaceans depends on different communicational cues, of which chemical and visual cues are most important. Herein we examined the role of chemical and visual communication during mate searching and assessment in the rock shrimp Rhynchocinetes typus. Adult male rock shrimp experience major ontogenetic changes. The terminal molt stages (named "robustus") are dominant and capable of monopolizing females during the mating process. Previous studies had shown that most females preferably mate with robustus males, but how these dominant males and receptive females find each other is uncertain, and is the question we examined herein. In a Y-maze designed to test for the importance of waterborne chemical cues, we observed that females approached the robustus male significantly more often than the typus male. Robustus males, however, were unable to locate receptive females via chemical signals. Using an experimental set-up that allowed testing for the importance of visual cues, we demonstrated that receptive females do not use visual cues to select robustus males, but robustus males use visual cues to find receptive females. Visual cues used by the robustus males were the tumults created by agitated aggregations of subordinate typus males around the receptive females. These results indicate a strong link between sexual communication and the mating system of rock shrimp in which dominant males monopolize receptive females. We found that females and males use different (sex-specific) communicational cues during mate searching and assessment, and that the sexual communication of rock shrimp is similar to that of the American lobster, where females are first attracted to the dominant males by chemical cues emitted by these males. A brief comparison between these two species shows that female behaviors during sexual communication contribute strongly to the outcome of mate searching and assessment.
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              The peripheral and central antennular pathway of the Caribbean stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii.

              Although stomatopod crustaceans use their chemical senses in many facets of behavior, little is known about their chemosensory neural pathways, especially in comparison to the better-studied decapod crustaceans. We examined the stomatopod Neogonodactylus oerstedii to determine organizational aspects of peripheral and central neural pathway of antennules, which is a major chemosensory organ. We describe the three flagella of the triramous antennule as the medial, dorsolateral, and ventrolateral flagella. The primary branch point is between the medial flagellum and lateral flagella, and the secondary branch point is at the junction of the dorsolateral and ventrolateral flagella. The antennule bears at least three types of setae, based on their external morphology. Simple setae are present only on the medial flagellum and ventrolateral flagellum, organized as a tuft of 10-15 setae on each flagellar annulus. Aesthetasc setae and asymmetric setae occur only on the distal annuli of the dorsolateral flagellum, with each annulus bearing a row of three aesthetascs and one asymmetric seta. DiI fills of the antennular nerve near the junction of the flagella show that sensory neurons in the antennular flagella project to two neuropils in the ipsilateral midbrain-the olfactory lobe (OL) and lateral antennular neuropil (LAN). The OL is glomerular and has rich serotonergic innervation, a characteristic of the OL in decapods. The LAN is bi-lobed and stratified as it is in decapods. However, the LAN of stomatopods differs from that of decapods in being relatively large and containing extensive serotonergic innervation. The median antennular neuropil of stomatopods has sparse serotonergic innervation, and it is more diffusely organized compared to decapods. No accessory lobes were found in N. oerstedii. Thus, the stomatopod antennular flagella have the same two, highly organized parallel pathways common to decapods-the OL pathway and the LAN pathway.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2015
                18 March 2015
                : 22
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2015/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Leigh Marine Laboratory, Institute of Marine Science, University of Auckland Warkworth 0941 New Zealand
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: otro004@ 123456aucklanduni.ac.nz
                Article
                parasite140113 10.1051/parasite/2015013
                10.1051/parasite/2015013
                4365294
                25786327
                © O. Trottier and A.G. Jeffs, published by EDP Sciences, 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 54, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Article

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