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      Recent advances in the treatment of pathogenic infections using antibiotics and nano-drug delivery vehicles

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          Abstract

          The worldwide misuse of antibiotics and the subsequent rise of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria have prompted a paradigm shift in the established view of antibiotic and bacterial–human relations. The clinical failures of conventional antibiotic therapies are associated with lengthy detection methods, poor penetration at infection sites, disruption of indigenous microflora and high potential for mutational resistance. One of the most promising strategies to improve the efficacy of antibiotics is to complex them with micro or nano delivery materials. Such materials/vehicles can shield antibiotics from enzyme deactivation, increasing the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug. Alternatively, drug-free nanomaterials that do not kill the pathogen but target virulent factors such as adhesins, toxins, or secretory systems can be used to minimize resistance and infection severity. The main objective of this review is to examine the potential of the aforementioned materials in the detection and treatment of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic organisms.

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          Most cited references 163

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          Common virulence factors for bacterial pathogenicity in plants and animals.

          A Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain (UCBPP-PA14) is infectious both in an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf infiltration model and in a mouse full-thickness skin burn model. UCBPP-PA14 exhibits ecotype specificity for Arabidopsis, causing a range of symptoms from none to severe in four different ecotypes. In the mouse model, UCBPP-PA14 is as lethal as other well-studied P. aeruginosa strains. Mutations in the UCBPP-PA14 toxA, plcS, and gacA genes resulted in a significant reduction in pathogenicity in both hosts, indicating that these genes encode virulence factors required for the full expression of pathogenicity in both plants and animals.
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            Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles.

            A highly selective, colorimetric polynucleotide detection method based on mercaptoalkyloligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticle probes is reported. Introduction of a single-stranded target oligonucleotide (30 bases) into a solution containing the appropriate probes resulted in the formation of a polymeric network of nanoparticles with a concomitant red-to-pinkish/purple color change. Hybridization was facilitated by freezing and thawing of the solutions, and the denaturation of these hybrid materials showed transition temperatures over a narrow range that allowed differentiation of a variety of imperfect targets. Transfer of the hybridization mixture to a reverse-phase silica plate resulted in a blue color upon drying that could be detected visually. The unoptimized system can detect about 10 femtomoles of an oligonucleotide.
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              The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases

              Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a ‘sterile’ environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. ‘Non-culturability’, reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as ‘dysbiosis’). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. ‘Dysbiosis’ is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term ‘atopobiosis’ for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2019
                18 January 2019
                : 13
                : 327-343
                Affiliations
                Department of Bionano Technology, Gachon Bionano Research Institute, Gachon University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, johnhulme21@ 123456gmail.com ; seong.an@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: John Hulme; Seong Soo A An, Department of Bionano Technology, Gachon Bionano Research Institute, Gachon University, 1342 Sungnam-daero, Sujung-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701, South Korea, Tel/fax +82 31 750 8550; +82 31 750 8755, Email johnhulme21@ 123456gmail.com ; seong.an@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                dddt-13-327
                10.2147/DDDT.S190577
                6342214
                © 2019 Giau et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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