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Impact of Inorganic Arsenicals on Vegetative Growth of Two Pakistani Origins Sunflower Cultivars

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      Abstract

      Inorganic arsenicals impact on vegetative growth of two sunflower (Helianthus annuusL.) cultivars (FH-385 as Hybrid 1 and FH-405 as Hybrid 2) was monitored. Various levels of two different sodium salts of arsenic, namely, sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4 ·7H2O) as source of As5+and sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) as source of As3+, were used to evaluate the effect of arsenic on plant water relation parameters. Significant stress effects were found when arsenic was higher in concentrations (>60 mg/kg soil of both salts) as compared to control plants. Genotype FH-405 showed higher levels for shoot and root length, water contents, number of leaves, and leaf area, which indicates well adaptation of this cultivar in arsenic contaminated environment. T5 (100 mg/kg) of both salts showed notable stressful impacts as compared to low arsenic concentrations (20, 40 mg/kg) and especially control plants in case of all morphophysiological parameters of sunflower cultivars.

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      Hydrometer Method Improved for Making Particle Size Analyses of Soils1

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        Uptake, translocation and transformation of arsenate and arsenite in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): formation of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes during exposure to high arsenic concentrations.

        The aim of the study was to determine the time-dependent formation of arsenic-phytochelatin (As-PC) complexes in the roots, stems and leaves of an arsenic-nontolerant plant (Helianthus annuus) during exposure to 66 mol l(-1) arsenite (As(III)) or arsenate (As(V)). We used our previously developed method of simultaneous element-specific (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ICP-MS) and molecular-specific (electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, ES-MS) detection systems interfaced with a suitable chromatographic column and eluent conditions, which enabled us to identify and quantify As-PC complexes directly. Roots of As-exposed H. annuus contained up to 14 different arsenic species, including the complex of arsenite with two (gamma-Glu-Cys)(2)-Gly molecules [As((III))-(PC(2))(2)], the newly identified monomethylarsonic phytochelatin-2 or (gamma-Glu-Cys)(2)-Gly CH(3)As (MA((III))-PC(2)) and at least eight not yet identified species. The complex of arsenite with (gamma-Glu-Cys)(3)-Gly (As((III))-PC(3)) and the complex of arsenite with glutathione (GSH) and (gamma-Glu-Cys)(2)-Gly (GS-As((III))-PC(2)) were present in all samples (roots, stems and leaves) taken from plants exposed to As. The GS-As((III))-PC(2) complex was the dominant complex after 1 h of exposure. As((III))-PC(3) became the predominant As-PC complex after 3 h, binding up to 40% of the As present in the exposed plants. No As-PC complexes were found in sap (mainly xylem sap from the root system), in contrast to roots, stems and leaves, which is unequivocal evidence that As-PC complexes are not involved in the translocation of As from root to leaves of H. annuus.
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          Fitness effects of transgenic disease resistance in sunflowers.

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Journal of Chemistry
            Journal of Chemistry
            Hindawi Limited
            2090-9063
            2090-9071
            2015
            2015
            : 2015
            :
            : 1-7
            10.1155/2015/275830
            © 2015

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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