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      Role of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Its Ligands in Kidney Inflammation and Damage

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          Abstract

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by persistent inflammation and progressive fibrosis, ultimately leading to end-stage renal disease. Although many studies have investigated the factors involved in the progressive deterioration of renal function, current therapeutic strategies only delay disease progression, leaving an unmet need for effective therapeutic interventions that target the cause behind the inflammatory process and could slow down or reverse the development and progression of CKD. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (ERBB1), a membrane tyrosine kinase receptor expressed in the kidney, is activated after renal damage, and preclinical studies have evidenced its potential as a therapeutic target in CKD therapy. To date, seven official EGFR ligands have been described, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) (canonical ligand), transforming growth factor- α, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor, amphiregulin, betacellulin, epiregulin, and epigen. Recently, the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) has been described as a novel EGFR ligand. The direct activation of EGFR by its ligands can exert different cellular responses, depending on the specific ligand, tissue, and pathological condition. Among all EGFR ligands, CTGF/CCN2 is of special relevance in CKD. This growth factor, by binding to EGFR and downstream signaling pathway activation, regulates renal inflammation, cell growth, and fibrosis. EGFR can also be “transactivated” by extracellular stimuli, including several key factors involved in renal disease, such as angiotensin II, transforming growth factor beta (TGFB), and other cytokines, including members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, showing another important mechanism involved in renal pathology. The aim of this review is to summarize the contribution of EGFR pathway activation in experimental kidney damage, with special attention to the regulation of the inflammatory response and the role of some EGFR ligands in this process. Better insights in EGFR signaling in renal disease could improve our current knowledge of renal pathology contributing to therapeutic strategies for CKD development and progression.

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          Most cited references 256

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          Innate lymphoid cells promote lung-tissue homeostasis after infection with influenza virus

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            Status of epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists in the biology and treatment of cancer.

            The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor of the ErbB family that is abnormally activated in many epithelial tumors. Receptor activation leads to recruitment and phosphorylation of several downstream intracellular substrates, leading to mitogenic signaling and other tumor-promoting cellular activities. In human tumors, receptor overexpression correlates with a more aggressive clinical course. Taken together, these observations indicate that the EGFR is a promising target for cancer therapy. Monoclonal antibodies directed at the ligand-binding extracellular domain and low-molecular weight inhibitors of the receptor's tyrosine kinase are currently in advanced stages of clinical development. These agents prevent ligand-induced receptor activation and downstream signaling, which results in cell cycle arrest, promotion of apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. They also enhance the antitumor effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In patients, anti-EGFR agents can be given safely at doses that fully inhibit receptor signaling, and single-agent activity has been observed against a variety of tumor types, including colon carcinoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, head and neck cancer, ovarian carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. Although antitumor activity is significant, responses have been seen in only a minority of the patients treated. In some clinical trials, anti-EGFR agents enhanced the effects of conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Ongoing research efforts are directed at the selection of patients with EGFR-dependent tumors, identification of the differences among the various classes of agents, and new clinical development strategies.
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              EGF receptor transactivation by G-protein-coupled receptors requires metalloproteinase cleavage of proHB-EGF.

               N Prenzel,  E B Zwick,  H Daub (2015)
              Cross-communication between different signalling systems allows the integration of the great diversity of stimuli that a cell receives under varying physiological situations. The transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent signalling pathways upon stimulation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are critical for the mitogenic activity of ligands such as lysophosphatidic acid, endothelin, thrombin, bombesin and carbachol, provides evidence for such an interconnected communication network. Here we show that EGFR transactivation upon GPCR stimulation involves proHB-EGF and a metalloproteinase activity that is rapidly induced upon GPCR-ligand interaction. We show that inhibition of proHB-EGF processing blocks GPCR-induced EGFR transactivation and downstream signals. The pathophysiological significance of this mechanism is demonstrated by inhibition of constitutive EGFR activity upon treatment of PC3 prostate carcinoma cells with the metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat. Together, our results establish a new mechanistic concept for cross-communication among different signalling systems.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators Inflamm
                MI
                Mediators of Inflammation
                Hindawi
                0962-9351
                1466-1861
                2018
                23 December 2018
                : 2018
                Affiliations
                1Vascular and Renal Translational Research Group, Institut de Recerca Biomèdica de Lleida (IRBLleida), Lleida 25198, Spain
                2IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain
                3Cellular Biology in Renal Diseases Laboratory, Universidad Autónoma Madrid, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain
                4University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Martha Lappas

                Article
                10.1155/2018/8739473
                6323488
                Copyright © 2018 Sandra Rayego-Mateos et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad, Gobierno de España
                Award ID: FJCI-2016-29050
                Funded by: Sociedad Española de Nefrología
                Funded by: Comunidad de Madrid
                Award ID: B2017/BMD-3751
                Funded by: Red de Investigación Renal
                Award ID: RD16/0009
                Funded by: Fondos FEDER European Union
                Award ID: PI17/00119
                Award ID: PI014/00041
                Funded by: Instituto de Salud Carlos III
                Categories
                Review Article

                Immunology

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