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      The weed vegetation of the bean “Fagiolo Cannellino di Atina” and the red pepper “Peperone di Pontecorvo” PDO crops (Latium, central Italy)

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      Plant Sociology

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The weed vegetation of the bean “Fagiolo Cannellino di Atina” (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and the red pepper “Peperone di Pontecorvo” (Capsicum annuum L.) PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) crops was surveyed by means of 16 relevés, sampled in four farms of southern Latium during July 2019. The relevés were subjected to multivariate analysis, which revealed that the two crops are weeded by vegetation types referable to two different subassociations of Panico-Polygonetum persicariae (Spergulo-Erodion, Eragrostietalia, Digitario-Eragrostietea). Namely, communities colonizing bean fields, which are more mesophilous and richer in Eurasian taxa, are ascribable to the subassociation sorghetosum halepensis. Communities colonizing red pepper fields, which are more thermophilous and richer in Mediterranean taxa, are ascribable to the subassociation cyperetosum rotundi. Floristic, structural, and chorological features of the communities are discussed in relation to environmental factors and agricultural management.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Pflanzensoziologie

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            The role of weeds in supporting biological diversity within crop fields*

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              Global perspective of herbicide-resistant weeds.

               Ian Heap (2014)
              Two hundred and twenty weed species have evolved resistance to one or more herbicides, and there are now 404 unique cases (species × site of action) of herbicide-resistant weeds globally. ALS inhibitor-resistant weeds account for about a third of all cases (133/404) and are particularly troublesome in rice and cereals. Although 71 weed species have been identified with triazine resistance, their importance has dwindled with the shift towards Roundup Ready® crops in the USA and the reduction of triazine usage in Europe. Forty-three grasses have evolved resistance to ACCase inhibitors, with the most serious cases being Avena spp., Lolium spp., Phalaris spp., Setaria spp. and Alopecurus myosuroides, infesting more than 25 million hectares of cereal production globally. Of the 24 weed species with glyphosate resistance, 16 have been found in Roundup Ready® cropping systems. Although Conyza canadensis is the most widespread glyphosate-resistant weed, Amaranthus palmeri and Amaranthus tuberculartus are the two most economically important glyphosate-resistant weeds because of the area they infest and the fact that these species have evolved resistance to numerous other herbicide sites of action, leaving growers with few herbicidal options for their control. The agricultural chemical industry has not brought any new herbicides with novel sites of action to market in over 30 years, making growers reliant on using existing herbicides in new ways. In addition, tougher registration and environmental regulations on herbicides have resulted in a loss of some herbicides, particularly in Europe. The lack of novel herbicide chemistries being brought to market combined with the rapid increase in multiple resistance in weeds threatens crop production worldwide.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Plant Sociology
                Plant Sociology
                Pensoft Publishers
                2704-6192
                2280-1855
                April 13 2020
                April 13 2020
                : 57
                : 1
                : 1-10
                Article
                10.3897/pls2020571/01
                © 2020

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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