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      Effect of Segment-Body Vibration on Strength Parameters

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          Abstract

          Background

          In this study, we examine the biomechanical advantage of combining localized vibrations to hamstring muscles involved in a traditional resistance training routine.

          Methods

          Thirty-six male and female participants with at least 2 years of experience in resistance training were recruited from the German Sport University Cologne. The participants were randomized into two training groups: vibration training group (VG) and traditional training group (TTG). Both groups underwent a 4-week training phase, where each participant worked out at 70 % of the individual 1 repeat maximum (RM—maximum load capacity of a muscle for one lift to fatigue) (4 sets with 12 repetitions each). For participants in the VG group, local vibration was additionally applied directly to hamstring muscles during exercise. A 2-week examination phase preceded the pretests. After the pretests, the subjects underwent a prescribed training for 4 weeks. At the conclusion of the training, a 2-week detraining was imposed and then the study concluded with posttests and retest.

          Results

          The measured parameters were maximum isometric force of the hamstrings and maximum range of motion and muscle tension at maximum knee angle. The study revealed a significant increase in maximum isometric force in both training groups (VG = 21 %, TTG = 14 %). However, VG groups showed an increase in their range of motion by approximately 2 %. Moreover, the muscle tension at maximum knee angle increased less in VG (approximately 35 %) compared to TG (approximately 46 %).

          Conclusions

          We conclude that segment-body vibrations applied in resistance training can offer an effective tool to increase maximum isometric force, compared to traditional training. The cause for these findings can be attributed to the additional local vibration stimulus.

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          Most cited references 70

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          Resistance exercise training: its role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

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            The use of vibration as an exercise intervention.

            The use of vibration as a means for enhancing athletic performance is a recent issue in exercise physiology. Current evidence suggests that vibration is effective in enhancing strength and the power capacity of humans, although the mechanisms mediating this effect are unknown.
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              Neuromuscular adaptation during prolonged strength training, detraining and re-strength-training in middle-aged and elderly people.

              Effects of a 24-week strength training performed twice weekly (24 ST) (combined with explosive exercises) followed by either a 3-week detraining (3 DT) and a 21-week re-strength-training (21 RST) (experiment A) or by a 24-week detraining (24 DT) (experiment B) on neural activation of the agonist and antagonist leg extensors, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris, maximal isometric and one repetition maximum (1-RM) strength and jumping (J) and walking (W) performances were examined. A group of middle-aged (M, 37-44 years, n = 12) and elderly (E, 62-77, n = 10) and another group of M (35-45, n = 7) and E (63-78, n = 7) served as subjects. In experiment A, the 1-RM increased substantially during 24 ST in M (27%, P<0.001) and E (29%, P<0.001) and in experiment B in M (29%, P<0.001) and E (23%, P<0.01). During 21 RST the 1-RM was increased by 5% at week 48 (P<0.01) in M and 3% at week 41 in E (n.s., but P<0.05 at week 34). In experiment A the integrated electromyogram (IEMG) of the vastus muscles in the 1-RM increased during 24 ST in both M (P<0.05) and E (P<0.001) and during 21 RST in M for the right (P<0.05) and in E for both legs (P<0.05). The biceps femoris co-activation during the 1-RM leg extension decreased during the first 8-week training in M (from 29+/-5% to 25+/-3%, n.s.) and especially in E (from 41+/-11% to 32+/-9%, P<0.05). The CSA increased by 7% in M (P<0.05) and by 7% in E (P<0.001), and by 7% (n.s.) in M and by 3% in E (n.s.) during 24 ST periods. Increases of 18% (P<0.001) and 12% (P<0.05) in M and 22% (P<0.001) and 26% (P<0.05) in E occurred in J. W speed increased (P<0.05) in both age groups. The only decrease during 3 DT was in maximal isometric force in M by 6% (P<0.05) and by 4% (n.s.) in E. During 24 DT the CSA decreased in both age groups (P<0.01), the 1-RM decreased by 6% (P<0.05) in M and by 4% (P<0.05) in E and isometric force by 12% (P<0.001) in M and by 9% (P<0.05) in E, respectively, while J and W remained unaltered. The strength gains were accompanied by increased maximal voluntary neural activation of the agonists in both age groups with reduced antagonist co-activation in the elderly during the initial training phases. Neural adaptation seemed to play a greater role than muscle hypertrophy. Short-term detraining led to only minor changes, while prolonged detraining resulted in muscle atrophy and decreased voluntary strength, but explosive jumping and walking actions in both age groups appeared to remain elevated for quite a long time by compensatory types of physical activities when performed on a regular basis.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [ ]Sport Science Program, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar
                [ ]Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany
                [ ]The German Research Center, Center of Elite Sport, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany
                [ ]Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA USA
                Contributors
                +974-(66231798) , ruben.goebel@qu.edu.qa
                kleinoeder@dshs-koeln.de
                yue@dshs-koeln.de
                ranajayghosh@gmail.com
                mester@dshs-koeln.de
                Journal
                Sports Med Open
                Sports Med Open
                Sports Medicine - Open
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                2199-1170
                2198-9761
                3 July 2015
                3 July 2015
                2015
                : 1
                : 1
                22
                10.1186/s40798-015-0022-z
                4526247
                © Goebel et al. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Original Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

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